Vagrant详细教程

2022年05月11日 阅读数:3
这篇文章主要向大家介绍Vagrant详细教程,主要内容包括基础应用、实用技巧、原理机制等方面,希望对大家有所帮助。

镜像下载、域名解析、时间同步请点击 阿里云开源镜像站html

1、安装virtualBox

  进入 VirtualBox 的主页,便可进入下载页面.shell

file

  VirtualBox 是一个跨平台的虚拟化工具,支持多个操做系统,根据本身的状况选择对应的版本下载便可。apache

file

  在安装完主程序后,直接双击扩展包文件便可安装扩展包。编程

 2、安装Vagrant

  在 Vagant 网站下载最新的版本,根据本身的操做系统选择对应的版本下载便可。ubuntu

 file

  注意,Vagrant 是没有图形界面的,因此安装完成后也没有桌面快捷方式。具体使用方法,接下来会详细说明。centos

  Vagrant 的安装程序会自动把安装路径加入到 PATH 环境变量,因此,这时候能够经过命令行执行 vagrant version 检查是否安装成功:缓存

 file

3、下载虚拟机镜像

  使用 Vagrant 建立虚机时,须要指定一个镜像,也就是 box。开始这个 box 不存在,因此 Vagrant 会先从网上下载,而后缓存在本地目录中。ruby

  Vagrant 有一个镜像网站,里面列出了都有哪些镜像能够用,而且提供了操做文档。网络

 file

  可是这里默认下载每每会比较慢,因此下面我会介绍如何在其它地方下载到基础镜像,而后按照本身的须要重置。若是网速较好,下载顺利的朋友能够选择性地跳过部份内容。app

  下面我给出最经常使用的两个 Linux 操做系统镜像的下载地址:

  CentOS

    CentOS 的镜像下载网站是: http://cloud.centos.org/centos/

    在其中选择本身想要下载的版本,列表中有一个 vagrant 目录,里面是专门为 vagrant 构建的镜像。选择其中的 .box 后缀的文件下载便可。这里可使用下载工具,以较快的速度下载下来。

  Ubuntu

    Ubuntu 的镜像下载网站是: http://cloud-images.ubuntu.com/

    一样先选择想要的版本,而后选择针对 vagrant 的 .box 文件便可。

4、添加box

  接下来咱们须要将下载后的 .box 文件添加到 vagrant 中。

  Vagrant 没有 GUI,只能从命令行访问,先启动一个命令行,而后执行:

  指令1:vagrant box list  查询vagrant 已经管理的 Box 有哪些

houlei@houleideMacBook-Pro ubuntu % vagrant box list          
There are no installed boxes! Use `vagrant box add` to add some.

  指令2:vagrant box add 将 box 添加到vagrant 中, 命令后面跟着的是box文件路径,而且经过 --name ubuntu 为这个 box 指定一个名字。

houlei@houleideMacBook-Pro ubuntu % vagrant box add /Users/houlei/Desktop/vagrant/box/xenial-server-cloudimg-amd64-vagrant.box --name ubuntu ==> box: Box file was not detected as metadata. Adding it directly... ==> box: Adding box 'ubuntu' (v0) for provider: 
    box: Unpacking necessary files from: file:///Users/houlei/Desktop/vagrant/box/xenial-server-cloudimg-amd64-vagrant.box
==> box: Successfully added box 'ubuntu' (v0) for 'virtualbox'!   # 安装成功 houlei@houleideMacBook-Pro ubuntu % vagrant box list                                                                                        
ubuntu (virtualbox, 0)     # 刚安装成功的box,在安装的时候,我去的名字叫ubuntu
houlei@houleideMacBook-Pro ubuntu %

   指令3:vagrant box remove NAME 根据名字删除指定的box

5、Vagrant基本操做

  一、新建虚拟机

    咱们在建立虚拟机的时候,会生产一些文件,因此咱们为每一个虚拟机最好都建立一个独立的文件。而后进入文件中

/Users/houlei/Desktop/vagrant/ubuntu
houlei@houleideMacBook-Pro ubuntu % 

    我在桌面上建立了一个vagrant文件夹,在里面有建立了ubuntu文件夹,专门用来存放建立的而这个虚拟机的东西

    新建虚拟机指令:vagrant init [boxname]  加上boxname 表示使用哪一个box 建立虚拟机

houlei@houleideMacBook-Pro ubuntu % vagrant init ubuntu
A `Vagrantfile` has been placed in this directory. You are now
ready to `vagrant up` your first virtual environment! Please read
the comments in the Vagrantfile as well as documentation on
`vagrantup.com` for more information on using Vagrant.
houlei@houleideMacBook-Pro ubuntu % 

    建立成功后,会在文件夹中多一个“Vagrantfile”的文件。

  二、启动虚拟机

    注意: 在当前这个小例子中,上面全部的 vagrant 命令都须要在 Vagrantfile 所在的目录下执行。

    启动虚拟机的指令:vagrant up

   file

    只要是没有报错,就说明启动成功了

  三、查看虚拟机的状态 

    指令:vagrant status

   file

     若是是running 就说明咱们的虚拟机,启动成功了。

  四、连接虚拟机

    若是启动没问题,接下来执行 vagrant ssh 就能以 vagrant 用户直接登入虚机中。

root 用户没有默认密码,也不能直接登陆。须要 root 权限的命令能够经过在命令前添加 sudo 来执行,也能够执行 sudo -i 直接切换到 root 用户。

   这时候打开 VirtualBox 程序,能够看到自动建立的虚机:

   file

    咱们也能够在 VirtualBox 的终端上登陆系统,默认的登陆用户名和密码都是 vagrant,可是我的以为不是很方便。

    更推荐你们使用 vagrant ssh

 file

  五、中止虚拟机:

    指令:vagrant halt

file

  六、 暂停虚拟机

    指令:vagrant suspend

  七、恢复虚拟机

    指令:vagrant resume

    注意: 无论虚机是关闭仍是暂停状态,甚至是 error 状态,均可以执行 vagrant up 来让虚机恢复运行。

  八、删除虚拟机

    指令:vagrant destroy

 6、Vagrantfile源文件

# -*- mode: ruby -*- # vi: set ft=ruby :

# All Vagrant configuration is done below. The "2" in Vagrant.configure # configures the configuration version (we support older styles for # backwards compatibility). Please don't change it unless you know what # you're doing.
Vagrant.configure("2") do |config|
  # The most common configuration options are documented and commented below.
  # For a complete reference, please see the online documentation at
  # https://docs.vagrantup.com.

  # Every Vagrant development environment requires a box. You can search for
  # boxes at https://vagrantcloud.com/search.
  config.vm.box = "ubuntu"

  # Disable automatic box update checking. If you disable this, then
  # boxes will only be checked for updates when the user runs
  # `vagrant box outdated`. This is not recommended.
  # config.vm.box_check_update = false

  # Create a forwarded port mapping which allows access to a specific port
  # within the machine from a port on the host machine. In the example below,
  # accessing "localhost:8080" will access port 80 on the guest machine.
  # NOTE: This will enable public access to the opened port
  # config.vm.network "forwarded_port", guest: 80, host: 8080

  # Create a forwarded port mapping which allows access to a specific port
  # within the machine from a port on the host machine and only allow access
  # via 127.0.0.1 to disable public access
  # config.vm.network "forwarded_port", guest: 80, host: 8080, host_ip: "127.0.0.1"

  # Create a private network, which allows host-only access to the machine
  # using a specific IP.
  # config.vm.network "private_network", ip: "192.168.33.10"

  # Create a public network, which generally matched to bridged network.
  # Bridged networks make the machine appear as another physical device on
  # your network.
  # config.vm.network "public_network"

  # Share an additional folder to the guest VM. The first argument is
  # the path on the host to the actual folder. The second argument is
  # the path on the guest to mount the folder. And the optional third
  # argument is a set of non-required options.
  # config.vm.synced_folder "../data", "/vagrant_data"

  # Provider-specific configuration so you can fine-tune various
  # backing providers for Vagrant. These expose provider-specific options.
  # Example for VirtualBox:
  #
  # config.vm.provider "virtualbox" do |vb|
  # # Display the VirtualBox GUI when booting the machine
  # vb.gui = true
  #
  # # Customize the amount of memory on the VM:
  # vb.memory = "1024"
  # end
  #
  # View the documentation for the provider you are using for more
  # information on available options.

  # Enable provisioning with a shell script. Additional provisioners such as
  # Ansible, Chef, Docker, Puppet and Salt are also available. Please see the
  # documentation for more information about their specific syntax and use.
  # config.vm.provision "shell", inline: <<-SHELL
  # apt-get update
  # apt-get install -y apache2
  # SHELL
end

  这是一个 Ruby 语法的文件,由于 Vagrant 就是用 Ruby 编写的。若是编辑器没有语法高亮能够手动设置文件类型为 Ruby。

  这个缺省文件内容几乎都是注释,提示有哪些配置项能够修改,咱们不须要去学 Ruby 编程也能够照葫芦画瓢的完成基本的配置。

  刨除注释,这个文件的实际生效内容只有3行

Vagrant.configure("2") do |config| 
config.vm.box = "ubuntu" 
end

  这里的 config.vm.box 对应的就是虚机的镜像,也就是 box 文件,这是惟一必填的配置项。

  特别提醒,Vagrantfile 文件名是固定的写法,大小写也要彻底同样,修改了就不认识了

 7、自定义配置Vagrantfile

  下面我将针对这份默认的 Vagrantfile 内容,逐个讲解其中的配置含义和如何根据实际状况修改。

  一、配置端口转发

    端口转发(Port forward)又叫端口映射,就是把虚机的某个端口,映射到宿主机的端口上。这样就能在宿主机上访问到虚拟机中的服务。

  例如启动虚机时,默认的 22 (guest) => 2222 (host) (adapter 1) 就是把虚机的 SSH 服务端口(22)映射到宿主机的 2222 端口,这样直接在宿主机经过 ssh 客户端访问 127.0.0.1:2222 端口就等价于访问虚拟机的 22 端口。

  下面这两段配置就是教咱们如何配置额外的端口转发规则,例如把 Web 服务也映射出来:

  # Create a forwarded port mapping which allows access to a specific port
  # within the machine from a port on the host machine. In the example below,
  # accessing "localhost:8080" will access port 80 on the guest machine.
  # NOTE: This will enable public access to the opened port
  # config.vm.network "forwarded_port", guest: 80, host: 8080

  # Create a forwarded port mapping which allows access to a specific port
  # within the machine from a port on the host machine and only allow access
  # via 127.0.0.1 to disable public access
  # config.vm.network "forwarded_port", guest: 80, host: 8080, host_ip: "127.0.0.1"

  实际上设置端口转发这个功能并不实用,一个很明显的问题就是若是启动多个虚机,很容易就出现宿主机上端口冲突的问题。即便没有端口冲突,使用起来也不方便,我我的不推荐使用的,能够把这部分配置直接删掉。直接使用下面的私有网络。

  这个功能是虚拟机软件提供的,能够在虚机的网卡设置中展开高级选项,找到相关的配置:

file

  还有个地方须要注意,默认的 SSH 端口映射在这里无法直接修改。好比像我这样,2222 端口出现莫名问题,若是想要把 22 端口转发到其它端口如 22222,直接添加下面这样的配置是没用的:

   config.vm.network "forwarded_port", guest: 22, host: 22222  它会在原来的基础上新加一个端口转发规则,而不是替代原来的,必需要先强制关闭掉默认的那条规则:
config.vm.network "forwarded_port", guest: 22, host: 2222, id: "ssh", disabled: "true" config.vm.network "forwarded_port", guest: 22, host: 22222

  二、配置私有网络

    下面这段配置用来配置私有网络,实际上对应的是 VirtualBox 的主机网络,也就是 HostOnly 网络。

# Create a private network, which allows host-only access to the machine
  # using a specific IP.
  # config.vm.network "private_network", ip: "192.168.33.10"

  取消注释最下面一行,就能够为虚机设置指定的私有网络地址:

config.vm.network "private_network", ip: "192.168.33.10"

  若是这个网段的主机网络在 VirtualBox 中不存在,Vagrant 会在启动虚机时自动建立。因此,若是你想要利用已有的网络,请查看现有主机网络配置:

file

file

  最好这个网络也不要启用 DHCP,彻底由本身来分配地址,这样更加清楚。

config.vm.network "private_network", ip: "192.168.56.10"

  修改完成后,执行 vagrant reload 命令重建虚机,就能看到多出来的网卡了。

  私有网络实际也能够直接使用 DHCP,可是并不推荐:

config.vm.network "private_network", type: "dhcp"

  三、配置同步文件夹

houlei@houleideMacBook-Pro ubuntu % vagrant reload ==> default: Attempting graceful shutdown of VM... ==> default: Clearing any previously set forwarded ports... ==> default: Clearing any previously set network interfaces... ==> default: Preparing network interfaces based on configuration...
    default: Adapter 1: nat
    default: Adapter 2: hostonly ==> default: Forwarding ports...
    default: 22 (guest) => 2222 (host) (adapter 1) ==> default: Running 'pre-boot' VM customizations... ==> default: Booting VM... ==> default: Waiting for machine to boot. This may take a few minutes...
    default: SSH address: 127.0.0.1:2222 default: SSH username: vagrant
    default: SSH auth method: private key
    default: Warning: Connection reset. Retrying... ==> default: Machine booted and ready! ==> default: Checking for guest additions in VM...
    default: The guest additions on this VM do not match the installed version of
    default: VirtualBox! In most cases this is fine, but in rare cases it can
    default: prevent things such as shared folders from working properly. If you see
    default: shared folder errors, please make sure the guest additions within the
    default: virtual machine match the version of VirtualBox you have installed on
    default: your host and reload your VM.
    default: 
    default: Guest Additions Version: 5.1.38 default: VirtualBox Version: 6.1
==> default: Configuring and enabling network interfaces... ==> default: Mounting shared folders...
    default: /vagrant => /Users/houlei/Desktop/vagrant/ubuntu # /vagrant 对应的事虚拟机上的路径, =>对应的是本机上的路径。 ==> default: Machine already provisioned. Run `vagrant provision` or use the `--provision` ==> default: flag to force provisioning. Provisioners marked to run always will still run.

本文转自:https://www.cnblogs.com/Se7eN-HOU/archive/2022/04/21/16171456.html