一个月的时间让你的词汇量翻一翻

2020年08月12日 阅读数:193
这篇文章主要向大家介绍一个月的时间让你的词汇量翻一翻,主要内容包括基础应用、实用技巧、原理机制等方面,希望对大家有所帮助。

superword是一个Java实现的英文单词分析软件,主要研究英语单词音近形似转化规律、前缀后缀规律、词之间的类似性规律等等。

 

一个月的时间让你的词汇量翻一翻

 

The 100 most common Latin and Greek roots figure in more than 5,000 English derivatives just beyond the average person’s vocabulary of 10,000 words. They are the ones in all CAPITAL letters. By memorizing these 100 CAPITALIZED Latin and Greek prefixes, suffixes and roots, you will have a short cut to sight read an additional 5,000 words. If you learn all of them (both the caps and non-caps roots), you can double this to 10,000 additional words. Most of these words are used in medicine, law, business, science and technology. These are all words you must know in order to excel on the PSAT, SAT I and GRE, to do well in college and to have a successful career. The most important of these derived words are in CAPITALIZED BOLD print. You must know their meanings. Look these words up in your dictionary to get all the definitions. Put them on your index cards; the word on the front and definitions on the back. Many will not have the same exact meaning as the original Latin or Greek words but they will be close. When you use your dictionary, pay close attention to the Latin or Greek words from which they are derived. The Romans also combined prefixes and roots to derive new words. Many were borrowed straight from the Greek language, but most were combined with Latin to make additional words with similar but distinctive meanings. Try to get a feel for the ETYMOLOGY of these words.react

By breaking a word apart into root, prefix and suffix, you will be able to determine its literal meaning. Since you have encountered the word in context, you can then guess at its present meaning. For example, take the word "interposition." The prefix is ‘INTER-’, the suffix is ‘–ION’ and the root word is ‘POSIT’. Inter- means ‘between’, -ion is ‘the act of’ and ‘POSIT’ is from Latin meaning‘to place.’ Therefore, ‘interposition’ literally means ‘the act of placing between.’ Another example is the word "antipathy." The prefix is ‘ANTI-’, the Greek root word is ‘PATH’ and the suffix is ‘-Y.’ Anti- means ‘against’, the suffix,-y, is ‘the state of’ and PATH means ‘to feel.’ Antipathy therefore means ‘the state of feeling against’. Not all derived words have both a prefix and a suffix, many will have one or the other, some will use just the root word and others will combine two root words, as in ‘manuscript’ and ‘astronaut.’ Man- is the Latin root for ‘hand’ and script is the Latin root ‘to write.’ Astro is the Greek word for ‘star’ and ‘naut’ means sailor.android

The secret to increasing your vocabulary is not by memorizing a lot of words. The secret is in knowing how combining different prefixes and suffixes with a root word makes new words. For example, let’s take the Latin word gressum which means ‘to walk, to step or move forward’ and by combining the prefixes, A(D)-, CON-, DI-, E-, PRO-, RE-, RETRO- and TRANS- with the combining word "-GRESS-", we get 8 more words. If we add the suffixes –ION, -IVE, and –OR in turn to each of these words we derive 24 additional words for a total of 32 words. By knowing the meaning of the root word, and the 8 prefixes and 3 suffixes you also know the meaning of the 32 derived words. I use this example of making words to show you how easy it is to take words apart and thereby learn their meaning. As an exercise, combine these prefixes and suffixes with the root word to form the 32 words, write them down and look up their meanings.ios

Since many Greek words were assimilated by the Romans and Latin words also come down to us through French, Italian and Spanish, the modern spelling of some of these words can be quite different from the original Latin or Greek.git

The Latin and Greek prefixes, suffixes and root words are listed alphabetically.github

 

1. Latin Prefixes

 

The prefixes listed below are from Latin prepositions. They are attached to nouns, adjectives and especially to verbs. When taking apart compound verbs and defining them, it is best to translate the prefix as adverbial rather than prepositional. For example, abduct divides into ab (away) and duct (lead) and so means ‘lead away’ and not ‘away from leading’. Some of these prefixes have different forms depending on the initial letter of the root word. This makes the derived word more pronounceable and is known as assimilation. A prime example is the prefix SUB- which also has SUC-,SUF-,SUG-,SUM-, SUP-, SUR-, and SUS- as different forms.spring

Prefixexpress

Meaningapi

Examplespromise

A-bash

notwithout

amoralAPATHYANOMALY

AB-, ABS-

away from, offapart

abruptABSCONDABSTRACT

AD-, AC-, AN-, AS-

towardagainst

adventaccurateANNOTATEassent

AMBI-, AMB-

aroundabout, on both sides

AMBIGUOUSAMBIVALENT

ANTE-

before, in front of, early

antecedeantedateantebellum

ARCH-

mainchief

archangelarchbishoparchenemy

BI-

two

bifurcatebiannually

BENE-

well

BENEFACTORbenefitbeneficial

CIRCUM-, CIRA-

aroundabout

circumflexcircumferencecirca

CIS-

on this side of

cislunarcisalpine

CON-

withtogether

concurconcedeCONSCRIPT

COM-, COR-, COL-

togetherwithvery

COMPRISEcorrodecolleteral

CONTRA-

against

contradictcontroversycontravene

COUNTER-

against

counterfeitcounterclockwise

DE-

down, down from, offutterly

deformeddefoliatedescenddepress

DEMI-

half, partly belongs to

demisemiquaverdemigod

DIS-, DI-, DIF-

apart, in different directions

DIGRESSdivorcedisputeDISCERN

DU-, DUO-

two

duetduplicate

EM-, EN-

ininto

embraceenclose

EX-, E-, EF-, EC-

out, out of, fromaway

EXTOLeventexpelevadeELUCIDATE

EXTRA-, EXTRO-

outside of, beyond

extraordinaryextrovertEXTRAPOLATE

FORE-

before

forestallforgoforebear

IN-, I-, IL-, IM-, IR-

inintoontoward, put into

incisionimpelimpulseirrigate

 

notlackingwithout

illegalignominiousimpureimmoral

 

(same as above)

immodestindecentINCOHERENT

INDU-, INDI-

a strengthened form of IN-

indigent

INFRA-

belowbeneath, inferior to, after

infraredinfrasonic

INTER-, INTEL-

amongbetween, at intervals

intercedeinterceptintellect

INTRA-

inwithin, inside of

intramuralintravenous

INTRO-

inintowithin

introduceintrospective

JUXTA-

nearbeside

juxtaposejuxtaposition

MAL-, MALE-

evilbadly

malformedmaliciousmalaisemaladroit

MEDI-, MEDIO-

middle

medianmediocre

MILLI-, MILLE-

thousand

millenniummillimeter

MONO-

one

MONARCHMONOTONE

MULTI-, MULTUS-

muchmany

multifacetedmultiplymultilevel

NE-

not

neuterNEUTRAL

NON-

not (less emphatic than IN or UN)

nonresidentnonconformity

NUL-, NULL-

none, not any

nullifynullification

OB-, OF-, OC-

towardagainstacrossdownfor

oblongOBDURATEofferoccasionoccur

OP-, O-

towardagainstacrossdownfor

opposeoppositeomitoffer

OMNI-

alleverywhere

omniscientomnivorous

PED-, PEDI-

foot

pedestrianpedicure

PER-, PEL-

throughbythoroughlyaway

PERMEATEperfidypellucid

POST-

behind, after (in time or place)

postponepostnatalpostorbital

PRE-

beforeearlytoward

precedentpreceptpreposition

PRO-, PUR-

beforeforforth

proceedpurportpursuePROLONG

QUADRI-, QUADR-

four times, four fold

quadricepsquadrisectquadrangle

RE-, RED-

backagainagainstbehind

repelRELEGATEredeemredemption

RETRO-

backwardsbehind

retrogressiveretrofitretrograde

SE-, SED-

asideapart, away from

secureseducesecludeseditionselect

SEMI-

half

semicirclesemiprivate

SINE-

without

sinecure

SUB-, SUC-, SUF-

underbeneathinferior

sufferSUBMISSIVEsuccumb

SUG-, SUM-, SUP-

less than, in place of, secretly

suggestsubtractsuffusesupport

SUR-, SUS-

(same as above meanings)

suspendsurplus

SUBTER-

beneathsecretly

subterfuge

SUPER-, SUPRA-

overaboveexcessively

SUPERFICIALSUPERCILIOUS

SUR-

overaboveexcessively

surchargesurtaxsurplussurrealism

TRANS-, TRA-

acrossoverbeyondthrough

transoceanictransgressiontransittransition

TRI-

three

triangletriceps

ULTRA-

beyond, on other side

ultrasoundultraconservative

UN-

nonotwithout

unabashedunashamed

 

 

2. Latin Suffixes

You will also find a few Old English suffixes here since they are used quite freely with Latin and Greek root words.

Suffix

Meaning

Examples

-ABLE, -ABLY

able to, capable of being

unalienableinsuperable

-ACY

state or quality of being

intricacydemocracy

-AGE

belonging to, related to

marriageacreagepostage

-AL

pertaining to, act of

infinitesimalEPHEMERAL

-ANA

sayingswrittings, facts of

Americana

-AN, -ANT, -ENT

one who is

charlatanblatantstrident

-ANCE

act of, state of being, thing that

ABEYANCE

-ARY

belonging to, a relation to

hereditarysubsidiary

-ATE

having

alienateincarnateinsensate

-ATION, -ITION

the act of, result of

alterationcompilationnutrition

-AR

relating to, like; the nature of

singularpolarvicarscholar

-BULUM, -BLE

meansinstrumentplace

fablestable

-CIDE, -CIDAL

killer; having power to kill

insecticidesuicidal

-CRAT, -CRACY

to govern

bureaucracyplutocracy

-CULUM, -CLE

meansinstrumentplace

curriculumfulcrum

-EN

to become, or cause to be

darkenweaken

-ENCE

actfactqualitystate

conferenceexcellencedespondence

-ENCY

state of being

clemencydependency

-ER, -OR

one who

interlocutorvolunteer

-ENT

hasshows, or does

circumventINADVERTENT

-ERY, -RY

a place to/for; occupation of

tanneryvinerydentistryjewelry

-ESCE

becoming

obsolescentCOALESCE

-FY

to make, cause to be, or become

CLARIFYhorrify

-HOOD

state, quality; group of

childhoodpriesthood

-IAN

belonging to, a relation to

vulgarianplebian

-IER

a person concerned with

soldier

-IBLE

able to be

susceptibleflexible

-IC

pertaining to

ASCETICPROSAICENDEMIC

-ICE

state or quality of being

avarice

-IL, -ILE

having to do with

docilmissilecivilfossil

-ION

the act or result of, one who

legionopinion

-IUM, -Y, -CE, -GE

the act of

colloquiumcolloquyrefuge

-CIUM, -TIUM, -GIUM

something connected with the act

consortiumcompendium

-ISH

of, or belonging to; like

devilishboyishfoolishbookish

-IST

a person who does, makespractices

ALTRUISTartist

-ITIOUS

having the nature of

nutritiousseditious

-ITUDE, -TUDE

state of being

verisimilitudeaptitude

-ITY

statecharactercondition

ANIMOSITYstability

-IVE

one who, that which is

pensiveELUSIVEdeductive

-LESS

(OE) without, lacking

relentlesstireless

-LIKE

characteristic of; suitable for

manlikechildlikegodlike

-LY

specified manner, extentdirection

harshlyhourly

-MEN

result, or means

acumenspecimen

-MENTUM, -MENT

result, or means of an act

armamentimpedimentmoment

-NESS

state, quality of being

greatnesssadness

-OON

one who

buffoon

-OR

act, or condition of

errorterrorPRECURSOR

-ORY

relating to, thing which, place where

AMBULATORYlaboratory

-OSE, -OUS

having, full of, characterized by

IMPERVIOUSunctuousperilous

-SHIP

qualitycondition, state of

fellowshipfriendship

-SOME

like, tending to be

tiresomelonesome

-TION

state of that which

convocationcommotion

-TUDE

state of being

verisimilitudeaptitude

-ULUS, -ULOUS

tending to

CREDULOUSpendulous

-URE

state or act of

CENSUREtenure

-UUS, -UOUS

tending to

INNOCUOUS

-VOROUS, -VORE

eating, feeding on

omnivorousherbivore

-WISE

directionmanner, in regard to

clockwise

-Y

state of being

nullityAPATHY

 

 

3. Latin Number Forms

Prefix

Meaning

Examples

UNI-

one

UNIFORMunicornunilateral

PRIM-, PRIMO-

first

primaryprimitiveprimogenitor

DU-

two

duetdual

BI-, BIN-

twotwice

bicyclebinoculars

SECOND-

second

secondary

TRI-

three

triangletricycletrinity

TERTI-

third

tertiary

QUADR-, QUADRU-

four

quadranglequadruple

QUART-

fourth

quarter

QUINQUE-, QUINT-

fivefifth

quintetquintessence

SEX-, SEXT-

sixsixth

sextetsextant

SEPT-, SEPTEM-

seven

septetSeptember

OCT-

eight

octetOctober

OCTAV-

eighth

octaveoctagon

NOVEM-

nine

November

NON-

ninth

nonagon

DECEM-

ten

December

DECIM-

tenth

decimalDECIMATE

CENT-

hundre

centurycentennial

MILL-

thousand

millimetermillennium

SESQUI-

one and a half times

sesquicentennial

SEMI-

halfpartly

semiannual

 

 

4. Latin Base Words

Latin word

Meaning

Examples

abstinere

to hold back

abstainABSTINENCE

accollare

to embrace

ACCOLADE

acerbusACACR

sharpbittersour

acerbicacridacumenacrimony

actuare

to do, to move

ACTUATE

actusACT

drivelead, to do, to act

activeactivateactivismreact

acurer

to sharpen

ACUTEacumenacuity

adbaetere

witnessjudge

ARBITER

adjacere

to lie near

adjacent

aemulus

trying to equal, excel

EMULATE

aequus

equal

EQUIVALENT

affecereAFFE

a state of feeling, to feign

AFFECTATIONAFFECTED

ageragriagroAGR

field

agronomy

agereAG

drivelead, to do, to act

agilityagitateAGENDA

alacer

eagerquickbrisk

ALACRITY

albus

white

albinoalbedoalbescent

alerealtumALALT

grownourish

altrical

alius

otherelse

aliasALIENATE

alienusALIEN

of another, other

alienalienationunalienable

alludere

to joke, jest

alludeALLUSION

alterALTER

otheranother

alternativealtercationADULTERATE

alter

other of two

ALTERNATIVE

altus

highdeep

altoaltimeterexaltation

amareAMAMAT

to love, friend

AMIABLEenamoredamorous

ambulareAMB

to walk, to go

amblepreambleAMBULATORY

amicus

friend

AMITY

amplus

largespacious

ample

anecdota

unpublished

ANCEDOTE

angereanxius

to give pain

ANXIOUSANXIETY

angulus

a corner

angleANGULAR

anima

breathspiritsoul

ANIMOSITYinanimateunanimous

animusANIM

reasonmindsoullife

ANIMATEmagnanimous

annusANNUENNI

year

annualbiennialcentennialPERENNIAL

anomalia

inequality

ANOMALY

antiquus

oldancient

antiquityantiqueANTIQUATED

apertumAPERT

openuncovered

aperture

apparere

to come forth

apparentappearanceAPPARITION

appellareAPPELL

addressentreatcall

appellation

apprehendere

to take hold of

apprehendAPPREHENSIVE

apprenare

to teach

APPRISE

aptareaptusAPTEPT

to fit, suitable

aptitudeadaptINEPT

aqua

water

aqueousaqueductaquiferaquarium

arabilis

to plow

ARABLE

arbit

judge

ARBITRATIONarbitrary

arbor

tree

arboretumarboreal

archeinARCH

to rule

MONARCH

ardere ARD

be on fire, to burn

ardorARDUOUS

arere

to be dry

ARID

arguere

make clear

argument

arma

implementsweapons

armarmamentARMADA

arrogare

full of pride

ARROGANTARROGANCE

arsumARS

be on fire

arson

arsartisART

skillcraftmethod

artartisanartist

articulare

jointed; utter distinctly

ARTICULATEinarticulate

artificium

art-craft + facere-to make

artifactartificeartificial

ascendere

to scale, climb

ascendASCENDANCY

aspergere

to sprinkle on

asperseASPERSION

assidere

to sit beside, assist

assessassist

assiduitas

constant presence

assiduityASSIDUOUS

astus

craftycunning

ASTUTE

auctor

authorenlarger

AUTHORITYauthorize

audereAUD

to dare, be bold

AUDACIOUSAUDACITY

augereaugtum

to increase

augmentationauguraugust

audireAUD

to hear

audibleaudio

auditumAUDIT

to hear

audition

augereAUGAUX

to increase

AUGMENTauxiliary

auctumAUCT

increase

auction

auris

ear

auricleauriform

auspicium

good omen, approval

auspiceAUSPICIOUS

authentious

realgenuine

AUTHENTIC

avarus

greedy

AVARICEavaricious

avertere

to turn away

avert

avis

bird

avianaviaryaviationavionics

beatus

happyblessed

beatificbeatitude

bellabellus

beautiful

EMBELLISH

bellumBELBELL

to wage war

bellicoserebelliousBELLIGERENT

beneBEN

wellgood

benevolenceBENEFICENTBENIGN

bibere

to drink

bibulousIMBIBE

blaterare

to babble, to roar

BLATANT

bonusBON

good

bonanzabonny, bon voyage, bonus

        melior

better

AMELIORATE

        optimus

best

optimum

brachium

an arm

EMBRACE

brevisBRIBREV

briefshort

BREVITYabbreviateabridge

burla

a jest

BURLESQUE

cadereCAD

to fall, happen by chance

DECADENTcadavercascade

cidereCID

to fall, happen by chance

coincidenceRECIDIVISM

casumCAS

to fall, happen by chance

cascade

caederecide

to cut, kill

incisionpesticide

calereCAL

be warm, glow

caloriccalorie

callum

hard skin

callus

calxCALC

pebble, to reckon

calculatecalculus

candereCAND

glowpuresincere

incandescencecandorCANDID

canereCANTCHANT

to sing

RECANTchantenchant

canis

dog

canine

capereCAPCAPT

to take, to seize

captivecaptureinterceptCAPTIOUS

capra

a she goat (impulsive)

CAPRICIOUScaprice

capereCIPCEPT

to take, to seize

INCIPIENTpreceptsusceptible

caputCAPCAPIT

headheadlong

capechaptercapitalprinciple

cardoCARDIN

hinge

cardinal

caroCARN

flesh

carnalincarnatecarnivore

castigare

to purify, chastise

CASTIGATE

cauda

a tail

CODA

causa

causereason

causalcausation

cavarecavus

to make hollow

CAVERNOUScavityexcavate

cedereCEDCEED

to go, to yield

recedeprecedeexceedPREDECESSOR

cessumCESS

to go, to yield

concessionaccessrecess

celeberCELEBR

honored

celebrantcelebritycelebrate

cella

storeroom

cellcellar

censereCENS

assessrateestimate

censusCENSURE

centrumCENTR

center

concentricconcentrateECCENTRIC

centumcenti

hundredtenthten

percentcentimetercentury

cernereCERNCERT

distinguishseparatedecide

discerncertitudeDISCERNMENT

cerebrum

brain

cerebralcerebratecerebellum

cerratanus

seller of Papal indulgences

CHARLATAN

cessare

to cease

INCESSANT

cierecitumCI

movestirrousecall

citecitation

citumCIT

movestirrousecall

exciteinciteSOLICITsolicitous

civis

citizencommunity

civiccivilitycivilian

clamereCLAIM

to shout, claim, cry out

CLARIFYACCLAIMRECLAIM

clamatumCLAM

to shout, claim, cry out

CLAMORPROCLAIMdeclaration

clarus

brightclearfamous

clarionclarity

clausumCLU

to close, shut

recluseexcludeincludeconclusionPRECLUDE

clavis

key

clavicleclavierENCLAVE

clemens

mildmerciful

CLEMENCY

clinatumCLICLIN

leanslope

inclineinclinationCLINOMETER

coagulare

to curdle

COAGULATE

codexCODIC

book, tree trun

codecodicil

coercere

to surrond, restrain

COERCE

cogitareCOG

to think

COGENTcogitative

cogitatumCOGITAT

to think

COGITATE

cognoscerecognitum

to know

INCOGNITOcognition, ignorant COGNIZANT

cohaerere

co-together + haerere-stick

coherecoherenceINCOHERENT

colare

to strain, filter

percolatecolander

color

to hide, conceal

colorationCOLOR

commodus

suitable

COMMODITY

complacere

to be pleased

complacencyCOMPLAISANT

complere

to fill up

completecomplyCOMPLIANT

computare

to compute

countDISCOUNT

comsentire (com + sentire)

to feel with

consentCONSENSUS

concidere

to cut off

CONCISE

conciliare

bring together, win over

conciliateCONCILIATORYRECONCILE

contererecontritio

ground to pieces, grief

CONTRITEcontrition

condensus

densecompact

CONDENSE

condere

to put together, hide

RECONDITE

condescendere

to let oneself down

CONDESCEND

congruere

come together

CONGRUENTINCONGRUOUS

contemnere

con-with + temnere-scorn

CONTEMPT

contendere

stretch out, strive after

CONTENTIOUScontendcontention

copia

abundance

COPIOUS

corCORDCOUR

heart

couragecordialaccord

corium

skinhide

excoriate

cornu copia

(cornu) horn (copia) plenty

CORNUCOPIA

corona

crown

coronacoronarycoronation

corpusCORPOR

body

corporealcorporation

corroborare

to strengthen

CORROBORATE

corrumpere

destroyspoilbribe

CORRUPT

creareCREA

creategrow

createcreative

crescereCRESC

growincrease

CRESCENDOaccretion

cretumCRECRET

growincrease

increaseincrement

credereCRED

to believe, to trust

credentialsincrediblecredence

creditumCREDIT

to believe, to trust

credit

cretumCRETCRIM

distinguishseparatedecide

secretDISCRIMINATErecrimination

crimenCRIMIN

accusationcharge

incriminatecriminology

cruce

potjug

crucible

culminare

peaksummit

CULMINATE

culpaCULP

faultblameguilt

culpritCULPABLEexculpate

cultusCULT

to till, care

CULTIVATEculturecult

cumbereCUBCUMB

to lie down

incubaterecumbentSUCCUMB

curaCURCURAT

to care for

sinecuresecure

currereCURR

to run

recurcurrent

cursumCURS

to run

CURSORYcursive

cruxCRUC

cross, to torture

crucialcrucifyexcruciatingcrusade

debereDEB

to owe

debtdebtor

debitumDEBIT

to owe

debit

debilitare

to weaken

DEBILITATE

decorus

fit; proper

DECORUMDECOROUSindecorous

deffere

to bring down, yield

deferDEFFERENCE

delectar

to charm

delectableDILETTANTE

deliberare

to consider, weigh well

DELIBERATE

delirare

(to plow crooked) to rave

DELIRIUMDELIRIOUS

deminuere

to lessen from

DEMINISHdiminutive

densdentis

tooth

denturedentifriceendodontia

denuntiare

to announce, denounce

denunciationDENOUNCE

depravare

to make crooked

depraveDEPRAVITY

desiccare

to dry up completely

DESICCATE

determinare

to set bounds from

DETERMINED

deusdei

godgodly

deifydeitydeism

devotus

to show reverence

devoutDEVOTION

dexter

right, right hand

dexterousAMBIDEXTROUS

dicereDIC

to say, to spea

indictabdicatePREDICAMENT

dictumDICT

to say, to speak

dictateverdictedictindict

dies

day

diurnal

difficilis

hard to do

difficult

diffidere

to distrust

diffidenceDIFFIDENT

dignari

to consider, worthy

deignDISDAININDIGNANT

dignusDIGN

worthy

dignifydignitaryINDIGNANT

dilatare

dis-apart + latus-wide

dilatedilation

discordia

dis-apart + cor-heart

DISCORDdiscordant

discurrere (dis + currere)

to run to and fro

DISCOURSE

distare

to stand apart

DISTANT

distinguere

to separate

DISTINGUISHED

docereDOC

teach

doctrinedocument

doctumDOCT

teach

doctor

dolereDOL

be in pain, grieve

dolefuldolorousINDOLENT

domitare

to tame

INDOMITABLE

dominusdominium

a lord, right of ownership

domaindominatedomineer

domus

househome

domesticityDOMESTICATEdomicile

donareDONDOT

giveforgive

CONDONEdonationdonor

dormiredorm

to sleep

dormitory

dotare

to endow

ENDOWENDOWMENT

dubiusDUB

doubt

DUBIOUSindubitable

ducereDUC

to lead

seduceinducesubduceSUBDUE

ductumDUCT

to lead

conductductile

duraredurusDUR

to harden, hard

duressOBDURATEDURABLEENDURANCE

ebullire

to boil up

EBULLIENT

effectu

bring to pass, accomplish

effectiveEFFECTUAL

effluere

to flow out

EFFLUENCEEFFLUVIUM

elicere

to draw out

ELICIT

emendare

to correct

EMENDAMEND

emoliri

accomplish

emolument

enhaucere

to raise high

ENHANCE

equisEQUIQU

equaleven

equidistantINIQUITYequivalent

errareERR

wander, go astray

erranterrorerrERRONEOUS

erraticusERRAT

wander, go astray

ERRATICABERRATION

erudire

to instruct

ERUDITE

essentia

to be

ESSENCEESSENTIAL

ethicus

charactercustom

ETHICAL

evitare

to shun, avoid

evitableINEVITABLE

exemplum

a pattern, example

EXEMPLARYEXEMPLIFY

exhaustus

to draw out, exhaust

EXHAUSTIVE

exhortari

ex-out + hortari-to urge

EXHORTexortation

exigereexigens

to drive out

exigencyEXIGENT

exoticus

foreignstrange

EXOTICexotica

exorbitare

to go out of the track

EXORBITANT

expeditus

hasendispatch

EXPEDITEEXPEDIENT

exponere

to put forth

expoundexposeEXPOSITION

expungere

mark for omission, erase

EXPUNGE

extirpare

to root out

EXTIRPATE

extraneare

to treat as a stranger

ESTRANGE

extremus

lastoutermost

EXTREMEextremity

extricatus

to disentangle

EXTRICATE

exuberare

to come forth in abundance

EXUBERANTexuberance

fabula

story

fablefabulous

facilis

easy, to make easy

facilefacilityFACILITATE

facerefactumFACFIC

to do, to make

facsimileEFFACEfictionSURFEIT

facetia

a jest, witty

facetiaeFACETIOUS

factumFACT

to do, to make

manufacturefactory

fallere

to deceive, disappoint

FALLACIOUSinfallible

fama

famereputation

famousINFAMOUS

fanaticus

enthusiastic

FANATIC

fanusfanum

a temple

PROFANEPROFANITY

fariFABFAM

speak

famefableAFFABLEfamous

fastidium

loathingdisgust

FASTIDIOUS

fatuus

silly

FATUOUSfatuity

fecundus

fertilefruitful

FECUNDfatuity

femina

woman

femalefemininefemininity

fendereFEND

to resist, hitstrike

defendoffendoffense

ferreFER

to carry, to bear

refertransferconferenceproffer

ferrum

iron

ferricferrousferrotype

fertilis

to bear fruit

FERTILEfertility

fervereFERV

boilferment

FERVOREFFERVESCENTfervid

fetidus

to stink

FETID

fiderefidesFID

faithtrust, rely on

fidelityPERFIDYperfidiousfiduciary

figarefixus

to fasten, attach

fixativecrucifixsuffix

firmareFIRM

to make firm, strengthen

AFFIRMconfirmfirmament

fingere

to touch, handle

feintFEIGN

finirefinisFIN

to end, limit

finalfiniteinfinityconfinement

fissumFISS

splitburst

fissure

fictumFICT

formshapemold

fictionfictitious

finisFIN

endlimit

finaldefinite

flagrareFLAGFLAM

to burn, flameblaze

flammableFLAGRANTconflagration

flareflatus

blow

deflateinflation

flectereFLECT

bendturn

deflectioninflectionreflect

flexumFLEX

bendturn

flexible

fligereFLICT

to strike, drivedash

afflictinflictconflictPROFLIGATE

florereFLOR

thrive, to flower

FLOURISHflorid

fluitas, (superfluere)

to overflow

SUPERFLUOUSSUPERFLUITY

fluereFLU

flow

confluencefluidflumeinfluence

fluxumFLUX

flow

influx

foris

out of doors, beyond

FORFEITFORFEITURE

formaFORM

shapebeautyconstant

UNIFORMREFORMFORMAL

fortisFORT

strongbrave

fortifyforcefortecomfortFORTITUDE

fortunaFORT

chanceluck

fortunateFORTUITOUS

fundareFOUNDFUND

bottom

foundationfundamentalPROFOUND

frangereFRANG

to break

frangiblefragment

frangereFRAG

to break

fragmentfragile

fractrumFRACT

to break

fractionfracture

fraterFRATR

brother

fraternalfraternize

frausFRAUD

deceittrickery

fraudFRAUDULENT

frivolus

fragilesilly

FRIVOLOUSfrivolity

fructusFRUITFRUG

fruitproduce

fruitfulfruition

frugalis

properworthy

FRUGAL

fugereFUG

fleeescape

fugacious

fugitumFUGIT

fleeescape

fugitive

fulmen

lightningthunderbolt

FULMINATE

fumus

smoke

fumitoryfumarole

fundereFUND

to pour out, shedscatter

refundFUSILLADE

fungiFUNG

performdodischarge

function

functumFUNCT

performdodischarge

functionary

funusFUNER

deathfuneral

funeralfunereal

furereFUR

raverage

furyfuriousinfuriate

furtum

theftstealthy

FURTIVE

fusumFUS

pourshedscatter

diffusePROFUSEeffusive

futilis

worthlessuntrustworthy

FUTILEfutility

garrire

chatter

GARRULOUS

genialis

of birth, generation

GENIALcongenitalCONGENIAL

genusGENGENER

birthracekind

GENREgenericgenerousgeneration

gestumGEST

carrywearwage

gestationgesture

gladius

sword

gladiatorgladiate

globus

ballsphere

globeglobal

glutire

to devour

GLUTTONgluttonous

gradiorGRADGRADI

walk, step; move foreward

gradualretrogradegradient

gressumGRESS

walk, step; move foreward

progressaggressiveREGRESS

grandisGRAND

great

grandeurgrandiosegrandiloquentAGGRANDIZE

gratia

favorgrace

grace

gratusGRAT

pleasingfavorable

gratitudecongratulateINGRATIATE

gravisGRAVGRIEV

heavyserious

gravegrievanceAGGRAVATEgravidgriefAGGRIEVEGRAVITY

grexGREG

flockherd

congregatesegregateGREGARIOUS

habereHAB

to have, holdkeep

habitinhabit

habeoHABIT

to have, holdkeep

habitualhabituate

haerereHERHES

to cling, stick

adhesivecohesiveadherentINHERENT

haeresis

school of thought, sect

hereticHERESY

harmonicus

fittingagreement

HARMONYharmonic

heresHERED

heir

hereditaryheredity

herba

grassherb

herbivorousherbaceous

hilararehilaris

to gladden, merry

hilariousexhilarate

histrio

actor

HISTRIONICS

homoHOMIN

man, human being

homicidalhominize

horrereHORR

shudder, stand stiff

horrendousabhor

hostis

enemy

hostile

humanus

mankind

humanity

humereHUM

be moist, damp

humid

humilis

lowly

HUMILITYhumiliate

id

one’s own

IDIOMidiosyncrasy

ignis

fire

igniteignitionigneous

ignorare

to have no knowledge of

ignoreignorant

imbuere

to wet, soak

IMBUE

imitariIMIT

to copy

imitative

imitatumIMITAT

to copy

imitateimitation

immunis

tax exempt

IMMUNE

impedire (im + pes)

to hold the feet, entangle

IMPEDE

imponere

to place upon

IMPOSE

inanis

emptyvacant

INANE

incidere

occur, to fall upon, likely

incidentINCIDENTAL

incisioincisivusCIS

to cut

exciseincisionINCISIVEincisor

inchoare

to begin

INCHOATE

incurrere

to run into, attack

incurINCURSION

indulgere

be kind to, yield to

indulgeINDULGENT

iners (in + ars)

without skill or art

inertiaINERT

infere (in + ferre)

to carry in

INFER

ingenerare

to beset

ENGENDER

ingenuus

nativeinbornfrank

INGENUOUS

inhibere

hold back, restrain

INHIBIT

inimicus

hostile

INIMICAL

iniquus

uneaqual

INIQUITYINIQUITIOUS

innovare

to renew

INNOVATE

inquirere

to seek

inquireINQUISITIVE

instigare

to incite, stimulate

INSTIGATE

insulaisola

island, to isolate

isolateinsulateINSULAR

integritas

wholeentire

INTEGRITY

intendere

aim at, stretch for

intendintenseINTENSIFY

intricare

to entangle, PERPLEX

INTRICATEintricacy

intus

within

INTIMATE

iratus

to be angry

IRATEIRASCIBLE

ireitumIT

to go

initiatetransit

iterITINER

journeywalk

ITINERANT

jacereJAC

to throw, cast down

ejaculateadjacent

jactumJECT

to throw, cast down

ejectrejecttrajectoryejectaobjectOBJECTIVE

jejunus

hungry or meager

jejune

jocus

joke

jocundjocularjocosejocosity

Jovis

Roman god Jupiter

JOVIAL

judexJUDIC

judgejudgement

JUDICIOUSjudicialadjudicate

jugum

a yoke

SUBJUGATE

jungereJUNG

to join, to meet

conjugalconjugateCONJOIN

junctumJUNCT

to join, to meet

junctioninjunction

jusJURJUST

rightlaw, take an oath

abjurePERJURYCONJUREjurisprudence

juvenile

oung

juvenileREJUVENATE

labiLAB

slideslipfall

labile

laborare

to work

collaborateELABORATE

lapsumLAPS

slideslipfall

lapse

labor

workexertion

laborlaboratorylaborious

lacrima

a tear

lachrymallachrymouse

lamentium

a mourning, wailing

LAMENT

languere

to be faint, listless

languidLANGUISHlanguor

lassus

faintweary

LASSITUDE

latusLATER

widesideways

LATITUDElateralUNILATERAL

latere

to lie, hidden

LATENT

latum, -LAT

to bear, to carry

relatetranslate

laudare

to praise, glory

LAUDABLE

lavereLUTLUGLAV

to wash

diluteDELUGElavatory

laxus

to be loose

LAXlaxity

legare

to send

RELEGATEdelegate

legereLEG

gatherchooseread

legendelegantELEGANCE

lectumLECT

gatherchooseread

dialectelectioncollectselect

lethargia

idle

lethargicLETHARGY

lexLEGIS

law

legislatureillegitimatelegal

levareLEV

light, to lift, rise

LEVITYelevateALLEVIATERELIEVE

liber

free

liberatelibertinedeliberate

liberLIBR

book

librarylibel

licerelictumLICT

leavequitpermitted

licenselicet

ligare

to bind

allegianceobligeligature

ligneLIGN

linecord

align

lignum

wood

LIGNEOUS

linqua

tonguelanguage

linguisticslingual

linquereLINQU

leavequit

relinquish

liquereLIQU

to flow, be fluid, clear

liquidPROLIX

litigare

to dispute

LITIGATELITIGANT

littera

letter of the alphabet

literatureobliterateliteralliterati

livere

be black and blue

livid

locus

place

dislocateALLOCATE

longus

long

PROLONG

loquaxLOQUAC

talkative

LOQUACIOUS

loquiLOQU

speaktalk

eloquentsoliloquy

locutumLOCUT

speaktalk

elocutionCIRCUMLOCUTION

lucereLUCLUMLUS

shine, be light

LUMINOUStranslucentLUCIDluster

lucidus

lightclear

ELUCIDATE

ludereLUD

to play, to mock

interludedeludeludicrouseludeprelude

lugerelugubris

to mourn

lugubrious

lusumLUS

to play, to mock

illusionCOLLUSION

lumen

bright light

luminanceluminaryLUMEN

luna

moon

lunaticlunatelunation

lupus

wolf

lupine

lympha

water

lymphlymphatic

macer

leanthin

MEAGER

macerare

make soft, or tender

MACERATE

magisterMAGISTR

teachermaster

magistrate

magnusMAGNA

biggreatlarge

magnitudemagnifyMAGNANIMOUS

majorMAJ

greaterbiggerlarger

majormajestic

maximusMAX

greatestbiggestlargest

maximummaxim

manereMAN

remaindwell

mansemanor

mansumMANS

remaindwell

mansion

malleare

to beat with a hammer

MALLEABLE

malusMAL

badevilwrong

maladjustedMALICEmalignant

maluspejor

worse

PEJORATIVE

malus pessimus

worst

pessimistpessimismPESSIMISTIC

mandare (manus + dare)

to order, command

mandatecommandmentMANDATORY

manusMANMANI

hand

manualMANIFESTmanumitmanipulate

mare

sea

marineraquamarine

margo

boarderland

marginMARGINAL

Martialis

of Mars (the god of war)

MARTIAL

matea

a hoe, club

MACE

materMATR

motherwomen

maternityMATRIARCH

materia

matter

MATERIALmaterialismmaterialize

mecari

to trade, buy

merchantmarket

mediusmediocris

middle

intermediarymedievalMEDIOCRE

melior

better

meliorateAMELIORATEmelioration

mellifer

honey

MELLIFLUOUS

memoriaMEMIN

remember

memoirmemorablememorandum

mendaxMENDAC

lyingfalse

mendaciousMENDACITY

mens

mind

mention

mensurare

to measure

measureCOMMENSURATE

merces

paywages

mercenary

mergere

to dip, sink

mergeMERGER

merxMERC

goodswares

merchantmerchandise

metusmeticulosus

fearfearful

METICULOUS

migrareMIGR

move, change places

emigrant

migratumMIGRAT

move, change places

MIGRATORYmigration

militareMILIT

to serve as soldiers

militiamilitarydemilitarize

ministreMINISTR

attendantservanthelper

ministerministration

min

small

minuteminiaturediminish

minor

smallerless

minorminority

mimimus

smallestleast

minimalminimize

minure

to lessen

DIMINISH

mirare

to look at, wonder at

miragemiracleadmiral

miscereMISC

to mix

admixturemiscellaneousPROMISCUOUS

miser

wretchedunhappy

MISERmiserablemiserly

miserari

to pity

miseryCOMMISERATE

mitigare

to make mild, softtender

MITIGATE

mittereMITMITT

sendletgo

emissaryremitadmittancetransmit

missumMISMISS

sendletgo

missiveremissiondemiseSURMISE

modestus

keeping due measure

MODESTmodesty

modusMOD

measuremannermeans

modemodalmodify

moles

massbulkpile

moleculrmolecular

monereMON

to warn, adviseremind

monumentsummonsremonstrate

monitumMONIT

to warn, adviseremind

monitoradmonitionADMONISH

monotonus

one tone

monotonemonotonyMONOTONUS

monsMONT

mountain

montagemonticule

morbus

disease

morbid

mordereMORD

bite

REMORSEmordacious

morsumMORS

bite

morsel

morsus

peevishfretful

MOROSE

morsMORT

death, to die

immortalmorgueMORBIDmoribund

mosMOR

mannercustom

MORALITYmores

movereMOV

to move

locomotiveMOTIVEMOTILITY

motumMOT

to move

motionmotorMOTIF

multusMULTI

many

multitudemultiplymultimedia

munificus

bountiful

MUNIFICENT

murmure

to murmur, roar

MURMUR

murus

wall

muralintramural

musMUR

mouse

muridmurine

musivus

artistic, of a muse

MOSAIC

mutaremutatumMUT

to change

mutationmutantpermutationMUTABLEIMMUTABLE

nasciNATNASNAI

to bear, be born

nativeprenatalnaturalINNATERENAISSANCE

nativus

naturalnative

NAÏVEnaivete

navis

ship

navynavigate

negare

to deny

negationabnegate

nemusNEMOR

woodgrove

nemophila

nervous

tendonsinew

nervousnervynerve

neuter

ne-not + uter-neither

neuterNEUTRALneutrality

nihilNIHIL

nonenothing, not any

ANNIHILATEnihilismnil

nocereNECNOCNOX

to harm, injure

internecineINNOCUOUSobnoxious

momenNOMNYM

name

nominatemisnomernomenclature

norma

rule

normative

noster

ours

NOSTRUM

notare

to mark, note

notationconnotationannotation

notumNOT

know

notablenotation

novusNOVNOU

newfresh

renovateNOVICENOVEL

noxNOCT

night

nocturnalequinox

nullusNULNULL

not any, none

nullannulNULLIFY

numerou

number

enumeratenumerableINNUMERABLE

numisma

a coin

numismaticNUMISMATIST

nuntiare

to announce

DENOUNCE

nutrire

nourish

nutriment

nutiareNOUNCNUNC

to report, tell

announceRENOUNCEpronounce

nucellanuxNUC

nut

nucellusnuclear

obliterare

to blot out

OBLITERATE

obscurus

covered over

OBSCURE

obstare

to stand against, oppose

OBSTINATE

obviare

to prevent

OBVIATE

oculus

eye

monoclebinocularocular

odium

hatred

odiumODIOUS

officius

to do work

officeOFFICIOUS

ominosus

evil omen

OMINOUS

omnisOMNI

all

omnipotentomniscient

onusONER

burden

onerousEXONERATE

opacus

shady dark

OPAQUEAPACITY

opponereoppositus

against

oppositeOPPOSITION

optare

choose

optionopinion

optimusOPTIM

best

optimumOPTIMISM

opusOPER

work

operativeopusoperaoperate

ordoORDIN

rankroworder

ordinal

oririORI

rise

originoriginal

osOSS

bone

ossicleOSSIFY

oscillare

to swing

OSCILLATE

ostendere

to show against

ostensibleOSTENTATION

palatum

to the palate

PALATABLE

palpare

to feel, stroke

palpablePALPITATE

pallerePALL

be pale, yellow, or faded

PALLIDPALOR

palliare

to conceal, cloak

PALLIATEpalliative

parparare

equal, to make equal

parDISPARATE

paradigma

to show, example

PARADIGM

parage

rank

PEER

parcere

to spare

PARSIMONY

parensparere

to appear

apparentTRANSPARENT

parerePAR

prepare, get ready, equal

DISPARATEparitypreparedness

parsPART

part

particlePARTISANBIPARTISIAN

passuspatipassum

sufferendure

patientPASSIVEpassion

paterPATR

father

paternalpatronizeEXPATRIATE

pauciPAU

few

PAUCITYpauper

pauperPOPOVPU

poor person, poor

povertyIMPOVERISHpauper

paxPACPEAC

peace

pacifyAPPEASEpact

pecunia

money

pecuniaryimpecunious

pejor

worst

PEJORATIVE

pellerePELL

driven, to push

compelexpelpropellant

pelsumPULS

to push

pulsateIMPULSIVE

penderePEND

to hang, weighplay

impendingappendagesuspendpendingPENCHANT

penserpensumPENS

to hang, weightplay

expensedispensepensiveindispensable

penuria

wantscarcity

PENURYPENURIOUS

perfidia

faithlessness, to deceive

perfidyperfidious

perfungi

get rid of, discharge

PERFUNCTORY

peroratus

to pray, speakorate

PERORATE

perquisitum

something required

PERQUISETE

pervadere (per + vadere)

to go through

PERVADEpervasive

pervius

per (through) via (way)

perviousIMPERVIOUS

pesPEDPOD

foot

pedalPEDESTRIANexpeditionpodiatrist

pessimus

worst

pessimistpessimismpessimistic

pestis

plague

pestilencepestiferousPESTILENT

peterePETPIT

aim at, seekattack

impetuousPETULANTpropitious

petitumPETIT

aim at, seekattack

petition

pictumPICT

painttattoo

picturepictorial

pius

devoted to duty, godly

PIOUSpiosity

placerePLAC

please, be agreeable

PLACATEplaceboIMPLACABLE

placitumPLACIT

please, be agreeable

PLACIDCOMPLACENT

planus

flateven

plane

plauderePLAUD

beatclapapprove

applaudplauditimplode

plausumPLAUS

beatclapapprovetrue

PLAUSIBLE

plexumPLEXPLIC

weaveplaitfoldtangle

complicateIMPLICATEcomplex

plenus

full

plentyreplenishPLETHORA

plicarePLICPLICAT

to fold, bend

complicateEXPLICITIMPLICIT

plerePLEPLETPLEN

to fill, full

completeIMPLEMENTDEPLETEreplete

plusplurisPLU

morefurther

surpluspluralityNONPLUS

poenalisPENPUN

to pay, compensate

penaltypunitivepenance

pompa

SOLEMN procession

pompPOMPOUSPOMPOSITY

ponderare

to weigh

PONDERPONDEROUS

ponerePON

to place, put

component

positumPOSPOUND

to place, put

positionoppositeEXPOUND

populus

people

populacepopularity

porterePORT

carry

portableportageexportimport

portio

shareportion

apportionproportion

posterus

nextfollowing

PREPOSTEROUS

potens

powerfulable

potentatepotentpotential

praecedere

to precede

precedenceUNPRECEDENTED

praecipitare

beforeahead

precipicePRECIPITATE

praedicare

to proclaim, declare

PREACH

precariusPREC

to request, begprayer

precariousimprecate

prediligere

to prefer

PREDILECTION

prehenderePREHEND

seizegrasp

apprehendcomprehend

prehensumPREHENS

seizegrasp

REPREHENSIBLECOMPREHENSIVE

PRISE

seizegrasp

compriseREPRISAL

pressare

to press, squeeze

presspressureREPRESS

pressumPRESS

squeeze

depressoppressimpressSUPPRESS

pretiarePREC

to value

preciousdepreciation

primusPRIMO

first

primordialprimaryPRIME

pristinus

former

PRISTINE

privare

separatepeculiar

privilegedeprive

probarePROB

to prove, test

probationprovePROBITY

prodigere

wasteful

PRODIGAL

prodigiosus

marvelous

PRODIGIOUSPRODIGY

profanus

before a temple

PROFANEPROFANITY

progresse

to step, to go forward

progressPROGRESSIVE

proles

offspring

prolificPROLIFERATE

prolongare

lengthen, extend in time

prolong

promere

to bring forth

PROMPT

promittere

to promise

COMPROMISE

prope

near

approachREPROACH

propendere

to hang or lean foreward

propendPROPENSITY

propinquus

near

PROPINQUITY

proprius

ones’ own, peculiar

propertyproprietaryPROPRIETY

prosa

direct speech

PROSEPROSAIC

prosperare

succeedthrivegrow

prosperPROSPEROUS

providereprovidens

to see before, cautious

providePRUDENTprovidenceIMPROVIDENT

provincia

territory outside of Rome

provincePROVINCIAL

proximus

nearest

proximityapproximate

puderepudens

to feel shame, modest

IMPUDENT

pugnarePUG

to fight, boxer

pugilistREPUGNANT

pugnarePUGN

to fight, boxer

pugnaciousIMPUGNREPUGNANT

pungerePUNG

pricksting

PUNGENTEXPUNGE

punctumPUNC

pricksting

punctualpuncturecompunction

pungerePOIGNPOINT

pricksting

poignantpointed

pulcherPULCHR

beautiful

pulchritude

purgare

to clean

purgepurgatory

putarePUT

to think, reckonconsider

computercompute

putatumPUTAT

to think, reckonconsider

reputationCOMPUTATION

putris

rotten

putridPUTRIFY

quaerereQUE

askseek

conquerquestacquirequery

quaesitumQUIS

askseek

INQUISITIVEexquisiteacquisition

qualis

of what sort, kind

QUALITYQUALIFY

quantusquande

how great, how much

QUANDARY

quattuor

four

quarterlyquatrainquaternary

queri

complain

QUERULOUS

quiesQUI

quite

tranquilACQUIESCEQUIESCENT

quotus

how many

QUORUMquotient

rabies

madness

RABID

radius

raybeamrod

radianradiation

radixRADIC

root

radicleradicalERADICATE

rancereRANC

be stinking

rancid

rapereRAP

to seize, snatch

raperapaciousrapine

raptumRAPT

to seize, snatch

rapturerapt

ratioRATION

reckoningaccount

reasonration

ratumRAT

thinksupposeconsider

rationalIRRATIONAL

ratus

to reckon

RATIFY

raucus

to mutter, give hoarse cries

RAUCOUS

recalcitrare

to kick back

RECALCITRANT

reciprocus

returning

reciprocateRECIPROCAL

rectificare

to correct

RECTIFY

recipere

to take back

receivereceiptRECEPTIVE

rectumRECT

direct, in a straight line

rectitude

redundare

to overflow

REDUNDANT

refererelatus

to bring back

referrelateCORRELATE

reformare

to make better

REFORM

refutare

to repel

REFUTE

regererectus

right, to make straight

erectRECTITUDE

regererexregis

to rule, kingdirect

regimendirectregularregency

regnum

to reign

INTERREGNUM

removere

to remove

REMOTE

renda

to tear apart

rend

renuntiare

to tell back

RENOUNCE

repletus

to fill again

REPLETEREPLETION

repellere

to repel, reject

repulserepellentrepel

repressus

to hold back

REPRESS

reprobare

rebukecensure

REPROVE

repudiare

to put away, divorce

REPUDIATE

rescindere

to cut off

RESCIND

residere

remainding

residueRESIDUAL

resilire

(salire) to jump, (re-) back

resileRESILIENT

respectus

to look at, look back on

respectRESPITE

resplendere

shining brightly

RESPLENDENT

retrahere

to draw back

RETRACT

revelatiorevelare

disclosereveal

REVELATION

rexREG

king

regal

ridererisumRIDRIS

to laugh at

DERISIONridiculerisibleDERIDE

rigereRIG

to be stiff, numb

rigorRIGOROUSrigidRIGIDTY

rogareROG

ask, stretch out the hand

arrogance

rogatumROGAT

ask, stretch out the hand

INTERROGATErogationabrogate

rotarerotatusrota

to turn, wheelturned

rotationrotaryrotorROTUND

ruffelen

to scratch

ruffle

rumpereRUMP

to break, destroy

abruptrupture

ruptumRUPT

to break, destroy

interruptCORRUPTcorruptive

rusRUR

country

rural

saccharum

sugar

SACCHARINE

sacrareSANCTSECR

holy

DESECRATECONSECRATEsanctify

sacrareSACR

holy

sacredsacrament

sagaxsagacissapare

wise, to know, to taste

sageSAGACIOUSsapient

sal

salt

saline

salireSALSIL

to leap, jump

sallysalutatorysalientRESILIENT

saltumSAULTSULT

to leap, jump

assaultdesultorysomersault

salusSALUT

healthsafety

saluteSALUTARYSALUBRIOUS

salvare

to save

salvationsalvagesave

sanctusSANCT

holy

sanctifySANCTIONsanctuary

sanguisSANGUIN

blood (cheerful)

SANGUINEconsanguinity

sanitassanatorius

healthhealthy

sanitationsanitary

sanus

sound

sanity

saporsapere

to taste

SAVORINSIPID

satissatiareSAT

enough, to fill, full

satedINSATIABLEsatisfysatiate

satura

a satire, poetic medley

satireSATIRIC

saquire

perceive clearly

SAGACIOUS

scala

stairsladder

SCALE

scandereSCAND

climb

ascendascensiondescendant

scireSCI

to know, knowing

OMNISCIENTscienceconscious

scribereSCRIB

writeincisescratch

scribedescribeTRANSCRIBE

scriptumSCRIPT

writeincisescratch

subscriptionscriptmanuscript

scrupus

sharp stone

scrupleSCRUPULOUS

scrutari

to search into carefully

scrutinySCRUTINIZE

secareSEC

to cut

sectionsectionalsector

sectumSECT

to cut

intersection

securus

free from care

securesecurity

sedereSED

to sit

sedimentpresideRESIDE

semenSEMIN

to sow, seed

seminalDISSEMINATESEMINARY

senexSEN

old man

senate

sensusSENSU

feeling

sensual

sentiereSENT

to feel, perceivethink

SENTIENTsentimentconsentDISSENT

sensumSENS

to feel, perceivethink

sensationsensiblesensorydissension

sepsis

poisonrotting

septicANTISEPTICaseptic

sequiSEQ

to follow, following

SEQUENTIALsequence

secutumSECSECUT

to follow

secondprosecute

sera

a saw

serrateSERRATEDserration

serenus

dryclearcalm

SERENESERENITY

servereSERV

saveprotectkeephold

servantreserveRESERVED

servus

slave

SERVITUDEservice

sessumSESSSEDSID

to sit, planplot

sessionpresideresidualsubsidy

severitas

harshstrict

severitySEVERE

sidere

to settle

SUBSIDE

signareSIGN

to sign, to mark out

signatureCONSIGNRESIGNATION

simplexSIMPLIC

singlesimple

simplesimplexSIMPLICITY

similaresimilis

to make like

similarfacsimilesimulationassimilate

sinister

lefthandedunlucky

SINISTER

sinus

a bend

SINUOUS

sobrius

sobermoderate

SOBERSOBRIETY

sociussociare

companionfollower

societysocialassociation

sol

sun

solarsolstice

solaresolusSOL

to make lonely, alone

soloSOLITARYSULLEN

sollicitus

anxiousworried

SOLICITsolicitous

soloecismus

speaking incorrectly

SOLECISM

solutumSOL

loosenreleaseundo

dissolutesolubleRESOLUTE

solvereSOLV

loosenreleaseundo

solventresolveINSOLVENT

somnus

sleep

somnolentsoporsoporific

sonussonare

to sound

DISSONANCEunisonsonorous

sonussonare

to sound

RESOUNDSONATADISSONANT

sorssortis

lot, a share

sortconsortium

spatiosus

large area

SPACIOUS

specereSPECSPIC

see, look at

specimenCONSPICUOUSspecific

spectumSPECT

see, look at

inspectspectacleRETROSPECT

spirereSPIR

to breathe, breath

aspireINSPIRE

spiratumSPIRAT

breath

respirationinspiration

sponderesponsus

to pledge, promise

sponsorrespondRESPONSIVE

spontaneus

of free will

SPONTANEOUSSPONTANEITY

sporadicus

to scatter

SPORADIC

spurius

falseillegitimate

SPURIOUS

squalereSQUAL

be rough, foul, or filithy

SQUALIDsqualor

squandere

to scatter

SQUANDER

stagnare

poolswamp

stagnateSTAGNATION

starestetSTA

to stand

stablestagnantcontrast

statumSTAT

to stand

statusstatueSTATICSTANZA

stellarestella

to shine, star

stellarconstellation

sterilis

barren

STERILE

stinguereSTINGU

to prick, to quench

DISTINGUISHEXTINGUISH

stinctumSTINCT

to prick, to quench

distinctdistinctiondistinctive

stolidus

firmslowstupid

STOLID

strategema

act of a general

strategySTRATAGEM

stratumSTRAT

layerspread

STRATIFYSTRATUM

striare

groovechannellined

STRIATED

stringereSTRING

draw tight, bind

astringentSTRINGENT

strictumSTRICT

draw tight, bind

strictconstriction

stridere

rasp

STRIDENT

struereSTRU

buildconstructspread

structureMISCONSTRUEinstrument

structumSTRUCT

buildconstructspread

instruct

studereSTUD

diligentzealousstudy

studentstudious

stupereSTUP

be stunned

STUPOR

suavisSUA

sweetsmooth

suaveASSUAGEpersuade

substare (sub + stare)

to stand under, present

substanceSUBSTANTIVE

subtilis

finethinprecise

SUBTLEsubtlety

succedere

to go under, follow after

succeedsuccessionSUCCESSIVE

succinctus

shortcontracted

SUCCINCT

summonere

to remind privily

SUMMONSsummon

summus

highest

summit

sumptus

expensecost

SUMPTUOUS

superlatus

excessive

SUPERLATIVE

supplantare

to trip up

SUPPLANT

supponere

to suppose, assume

SUPPOSITION

surgeresurrection

to rise, risen

insurgencyINSURRECTIONresurrection

surrepticius

to take away secretly

SURREPTITIOUS

sycophania

informertoady

SYCOPHANT

symbolus

tokenpledge

SYMBOLISM

tabula

boardtablet

tablettabloidtable

tacereTACTIC

to be silent

TACITTACITURNRETICENT

taedet

to disgust, offend

tediumTEDIOUS

taliare

to cut, splitprune

TAILOR

talio

punishment in kind

retaliateRETALIATION

tangeretactusTANG

to touch

tangentTANGIBLETANGENTIAL

tactumTACT

to touch

TACTILEtactual

tardus

to make slow

TARDYRETARD

tegereTEG

coverhidedefend

integument

tectumTECT

coverhidedefend

detectionprotect

temeretemeritas

rashlyblindly

TEMERITY

temetum

strong drink

ABSTEMIOUS

temnere

to scorn

contemnCONTEMPT

temperare

to temper, mixregulate

TEMPERATEtemperanceTEMPERAMENT

tempusTEMPOR

time

temporalcontemporizetemporize

tendereTEND

stretchspreadaim

contendtendEXTENDDISTEND

tentumTENTTEN

stretchspreadaim

PRETENTIOUSEXTENSIVE

tensumTENS

stretchspreadaim

tensiontensor

tendere

to stretch, extendtend

tendencyTENDENTIOUS

tenereTENTAIN

holdkeep

TENACIOUScontaindetaintenure

tentaretent

to touch, try

TENTATIVE

tenuisTENDTENS

thinstretched

extendtenuoustendencytendon

tenuisTENTTENU

thinstretched

tentativecontendTENUOUSextenuating

tepere

be lukewarm

tepid

tergere

to wipe

TERSE

terminus

boundryend

terminatorterminalDETERMINE

terereTERTRIT

rub away, tread, wear out

detriment

terra

landearth

terrace, terra firma

terrereTERR

frighten

terrorDETERterrorism

testis

witness

testamenttestifytestimony

texeretextumTEXT

weavebuild

texttexturetextualtexturized

theoria

a looking at, speculation

theoryTHEORETICAL

timereTIM

fear

timidTIMOROUS

tingereTING

dipsoakmoistendye

tinge

tinctumTINCT

dipsoakmoistendye

tincture

tirare

to draw fire

TIRADE

tirer

to draw

retireRETIRING

tonsumTONS

shearclipshave

tonsorialtonsure

torpereTORP

be stiff, numb

torpidTORPOR

torquereTORQU

to twist, turn

torque

tortumTORT

to twist, turn

contortionistextorttortureTORTUOUS

torrereTORR

parchscorch

torrid

toxicaretoxicum

to smear with poison

toxictoxintoxicant

tradere

to deliver

EXTRADITEtradition

traducere

exhibitdisgrace

TRADUCE

trahereTRA

to draw, drag

TRAITTRACE

tractumTRACT

to draw, dragpull

subtractTRACTABLEPROTRACT

tradere

to give, deliver over

TRADITIONtreason

tragicus

suffer

TRAGICtragedy

transcendere

trans + scandere- to climb

transcendtranscendent

transigere

to come to a settlement

transactINTRANSIGENT

transire (trans + ire)

to go across

transitTRANSITORY

tremereTREM

quakequiver

trembletremendoustremor

trepidare

to tremble

tremulousTREPIDATION

tribueretributustribus

to assign, allotpay

tributedistributeattribute

trivialis

commonplaceunimportant

TRIVIALtriviatrivialize

trudere

to thrust

ABSTRUSE

truncus

stemtrunk

TRUNKtruncatetruncheon

truxTRUC

wildroughfierce

TRUCULENT

trudereTRUDTRUS

to push, thrust

protrudeintrusionUNOBTRUSIVE

tumereTUM

swell, be swollen

tumescencetumultTUMOR

turbaTURB

uproardisturbance

perturbturbulenceturbid

turpis

basevile

TURPITUDE

ubique

(ubi) where, (qua) any

UBIQUITOUSubiquity

ultimusULTI

last

ultimate

umber (sub+umbrare)

shade, (under the shade)

SOMBERADUMBRATE

universus

all together

universaluniversalityuniversity

undaUND

wave

undulateabundant

uniformis

one form, unchanging

UNIFORMuniformity

unusUNI

one

unicornunicycle

urbsURB

city

urbanexurb

usumUS

to use

usageabuseusurp

uter

neither

neuterNEUTRAL

utorUTI

to use

utilityutilizationUTILIZE

vacarevacuus

empty

VACUOUSevacuate

vacillare

to stagger

VACILLATE

vaderevasunVAD

to go, make ones way

vademecumEVADEEVASIVE

vagarivagus

to wander

vagrantvagariesVAGUE

vanescere

to vanish

EVANESCENT

vanus

vainboastful

vaunted

vasum, -VAS

a vessel, dish

vascularvasectomy

valerevalidumVAL

to be strong, be well

valorvalidevaluatevalidity

varicar

to straddle, walk crookedly

PREVARICATE

varius

coloredDIVERSE

variablevariantvaryVARIEGATED

vehemens

eager

VEHEMENT

vehere

carry

vehiclevehicular

vellevolens

to wish, willing

VOLITIONBENEVOLENT

vena

blood vessel

veinvenous

vendereVEND

sell

vendvendorvenal

venenum

poison

venomvenomous

veneratus

to worship

VENERATEveneration

venireVENIVEN

come, move toward

interveneconventionCONTRAVENE

ventumVENTVENU

come, move toward

adventurevenueinvention

ventus

wind

VENTVENTILATE

venterVENTR

stomach

ventralventricle

verbumVERB

word

VERBATIMproverbadverbverb

vereri

to feel awe

REVERE

vergere

to turn, bend

CONVERGEDIVERGENT

vermis

worm

verminverminous

verusVER

true

VERIFYaververdictVERACITY

versumVERS

to turn, change

versatileAVERSIONDIVERSE

vestireVEST

to dress, garment

vestmentvestdivestinvestiture

vestigium

trackfootprint

VESTIGIALVESTIGE

vertereVERTVER

to turn, change

revertintrovertsubvertintroversiondiverseDIVERT

verticalis

the top, turning point

VERTICALVERTEX

vexareVEX

shaketosstrouble

VEX

vexatumVEXAT

shaketroubledistress

vexation

via

wayroad

viaviaduct

videreVID

to see

evidentprovidePROVIDENT

visumVISVIEW

to see

visualvisiblereviewsuperviseVISIONARY

vigereVIG

thriveflourish

vigorousVIGORvigorish

vilis

cheepbase

vileVILIFY

vincereVINC

conquerwin

invincibleconvinceCONVICTION

vindicta

revenge, to claim, avenge

VINDICTIVEVINDICATE

violareviolatus

to use force

violateINVIOLATEviolence

victumVICT

conquerwin

victorvictoryvictorous

vinovinumvinosus

wine

vinousvintageviticulture

virvirtus

manmanlinessworth

virtueVIRTUOUStriumvirate

virus

slimepoison

virusVIRULENTvirulence

vitium

faultflawoffence

vitiate

viverevitaVIVVI

to live, lifelively

REVIVEconvivialVITALVIVID

victumVICVICT

to live, lifelively

vicariousVIABLEVITALITY

vocereVOCVOK

to call, voice

vocalinvokerevokePROVOCATIVE

vocatumVOCAT

to call, voice

vocationconvocationvocativeADVOCATE

vociforatus

to cry out

VOCIFEROUSvociferate

vocitusvacare

to be empty

voidvacant

voluntas

free will

VOLUNTARYVOLUNTEER

volverevolutum

to turn

revolvedevolverevoltvoluble

vorere

to eat, devour

VORACIOUScarnivoreomnivorous

vocalisvoxVOC

voice

vocalvocalise

volare

to fly

VOLATILE

voloVOL

to wish, towill

VOLUNTARYVOLITION

volumen

a roll, scroll

volumeVOLUMINOUS

votumVOT

promisewishvow

votevotivevow

vox

voice

voicevocalVOCALISE

vulgus

the common crowd, rabble

vulgarvulgarizeVULGARIAN

vulnerare

to wound

vulnerable

 

 

5. Greek Prefixes

Prefix

Meaning

Examples

A-, AN-

notwithout

apoliticalanoxiaamoralATYPICAL

ACRO-

topend

acrobat

ALLO-

other

ALLOCATE

AMB-, AMPHI-

around

amphitheaterambitAMBIANCE

AMB-, AMPH-

both, more than one

amphibiousAMBIGUOUSAMBIVALENT

ANA-, AN-

upbackagain, similar to

anadromousanagramanalogy

ANDRO-, ANDR-

humanmale

androgynousandroid

ANTI-, ANT-

insteadagainst

antacidantisocialantipodesANTIPATHY

APO-, AP-

awayfromoffutterly

apogeeAPOCRYPHALapostasy

ARCHAE-

ancient

archaeology

AUTO-

self

automaticautocratAUTONOMY

BI-

twotwice

bipolarbiannualbigamyBILATERAL

CACO-

bad

CACOPHONY

CATA-, CAT-

down, down from, against

catacombcatapultCATASTROPHE

DECA-

ten

decade

DERMAT-

skin

dermatitis

DEUTERO-

secondfarther

Deuteronomy

DIA-, DI-

throughacross

diagramdialysisDIALECTdialogue

DIS-, DI-

twothroughacross

dilemmadissect

DYS-

baddifficultfaulty

dysfunctional (ill-, un-, mis-)

EC-, EX-

outfromoff

exit

ECO-

environmenthabitat

ecosphereecosystemecotype

ECTO-

on the outside, without

ectodermectomorphic

EN-, EM-

ininto

energy

ENDO-

withininsideinternal

endocrineendocranium

ENNEA-

nine

ennead

EPI-, EP-

uponatovernear

epicenterEPISODEepidermis

ESO-

inwardwithin

esortericesotropia

EU-

goodwell

EUPHONYeuphemismeugenicseuphoria

EXO-

outsideexternal

exotericexclude

HECATO-

hundred

hecatomb

HEMI

half

hemisphere

HEPTA-

seven

heptagon

HETERO-

unlikeother

heterogeneousHETERODOXY

HEXA-

six

hexagon

HIER-

sacred

HIEROGLYPHICS

HOLO-

whole

holistic

HOMEO-

likesimilar

HOMEOPATHYHOMEOSTASIS

HOMO-

likesimilar

homogeneoushomonym

HYPER-

overabovebeyond

hyperactiveHYPERBOLE

HYPO-

under, less than

HYPOCRITEhypodermicHYPOTHETICAL

IDIO-

individual

IDIOSYNCRASY

IDEO-

idea

ideologue

ISO-

equal

isometricisobar

KILO-

thousand

kilogramKilohertz

MACRO-

large

macroscopic

MEGA-, MEGALO-

large

megatonmegalopolisMEGALOMANIA

MESO-

middle

Mesolithicmesoderm

META-

amongbetweenbeyond

metathesismetaphysical

MICRO-

small

microscopic

MONO-

one

monorail

MYRIAD-

ten thousand

MYRIAD

NEO-

new

neoclassical

OCTO-

eight

octogenarianoctopus

OLIG-

few

oligarchy

ORTHO-

straightregularupright

orthopedicorthogenesis

PALEO-

ancient

Paleolithic

PALIN-, PALI-

backagainbackwards

palindrome

PAN-

all

pandemicpanoramaPANACEA, Pan-American

PARA-

besidebeyondnearincorrectlyresembling

paragraphparanormalPARADOXPARADIGM

PACHY-

thick

pachyderm

PENTA-

five

pentagonpentagram

PERI-

aroundabout

perimeterPERIPHERYperihelionperigee

POLY-

many

polychromaticpolyglotpolygamy

PRO-

beforeforwardfor

procrastinate

PROS-

totowardbesides

prosenchyma

PROTO-

first

prototypeprotoplasm

PSEUDO-

false

PSEUDONYM

SCHIZO-

cleavecutsplit

schizophrenia

SYN-, SYM-, SYS-

togetherwith

symmetricSYNOPSISSYNTHESIS

TAUTO-

same

tautological

TELE-

fardistant

telephonetelegraph

TELEO-

endresult

teleology

TETRA-

four

tetrameter

TRI-

three

trimester

 

 

6. Greek Suffixes

Suffix

Meaning

Examples

-AC, -IAC

pertaining to

cardiachypochondriac

-AGIA, -ALGIA

pain

neuralgia

-AST

one who does

dicast

-CRACY

government

democracy

-CLASM

destruction

iconoclasm

-EMIA

condition of the blood

anemia

-GENESIS

creationformation

parthenogenesis

-GENIC

suitable

photogenic

-GRAM

record

electrocardiogram

-GRAPH

written

monographtelegraph

-GRAPHY

process/method of writing

photographycalligraphy

-IA, -Y

act, state of

polityEUPHORIAdyslexia

-IATRICS

treatment of disease

pediatrics

-IATRY

healing

psychiatry

-IC

pertaining to, one who

DOGMATICaristocratic

-ICAL

pertaining to, made of

politicalangelical

-IC, -ICE

artscience, study of

politics

-INE

used to form feminine nouns

heroine

-ITE

inhabitant of, product

sybariteLucite

-ITIS

inflammation

tendonitisbronchitisneuritis

-ISE, -IZE

to make to give

PROSELYTIZEsanitize

-ISK, -ISCUS

little

asterisk

-ISM

the belief in, profession of

hylozoismeuphemismbaptism

-IST

one who believes in

Platonist

LATRY

worship of

idolatry

-LITE, -LITH

stone

megalith

LOGUE

manner of speaking

monologue

LOGY

science or study of

geology

-LYSIS

loosening

analysis

-MA, -M, -ME

result of

dogmatheoremtheme

-MANCY

prophecy

necromancy

-MANIA

madness for

pyromania

-METER

to measure

centimeter

-OID

resemblinglikeshaped

humanoidandroid

-OLOGY

science or study of

geology

-OMA

tumor

melanoma

-ORAMA

view

panorama

-OSIS

abnormal condition

halitosis

-PATHY

feelingdisease

ANTIPATHYosteopathy

-PHILIA

love, affinity for

Anglophiliahomophilia

-PHILIC

love, affinity for

audiophilic

-PHOBIA

fear of

claustrophobia

-PHOR

that which carries

metaphor

-PHORIA

production of

EUPHORIA

-PHOROUS

producing

phosphorous

-POLY

saleselling

monopoly

-SCOPE

instrument for visual exam

telescopemicroscope

-SIS

act, state of

metamorphosis

-THERAPY

to nurse, care for

hydrotherapy

-TIC

pertaining to

STATICenigmatic

-Y

state of being

ANTIPATHY

 

 

7. Greek Number Forms

Prefix

Meaning

Examples

MONO-

one

monogram

BI-

two

bipolar

TRI-

three

trimestertricycle

TETRA-

four

tetrameter

PENTA-

five

pentagon

HEXA-

six

hexagon

HEPTA-

seven

heptagon

OCTO-

eight

octogenarian

ENNEA-

nine

ennead

DECA-

ten

decade

HECATO-

hundred

hecatomb

KILO-

thousand

kilogram

MYRIAD-

ten thousand

myriad

MEGA-

one million

Megahertzmegabyte

 

 

8. Greek Base Words

Word

Meaning

Examples

acro

tiptopapex

acropolisacrophobia

aesthAESTH

feeling

AESTHETICS

aerAER

lower air

aerobicaerodynamic

aden

gland

adrenal

agogosAGOG

leader

DEMAGOGUEpedagogic

agonAGON

conteststruggle

antagonistagony

agroagros

fieldearthsoil

agricultureagronomy

aigis

goatskin cloak; shield

AEGIS

akme

top point

acme

algia

pain

neuralgia

allosALLO

other

allotropicallomorphallopathicallogamy

anthroposANTHROP

manstamen

anthropomorphic

anemo

wind

anemometeranemophilous

athl

prize

decathlon

ainigma

riddle

ENIGMAenigmatic

anthropos

man

anthropology

archosARCH

chieffirstrule

monarcharchangelarchipelagoANARCHY

archaeoarchaios

ancientold

archaeologyarcheozoic

aristoaristos

best

aristocracyaristocrat

arithmos

number

arithmetic

askein

exercisedaustere

ASCETIC

asterastroASTR

star

astronomyastronautastral

atmos

steamvapor

atmosphere

autoautosAUTO

self

autoimmuneautobiography

axioma

authority, to think worthy

AXIOM

balleinBAL

throw

ballballistics

barobarosBAR

weightpressure

barometerbarograph

barbaros

foreignbarbarian

BARBARICbarbarous

barys

heavy

hyperbaric

batBAT

go

acrobat

bathoBATHO

depth

bathysphere

biblosBIBLIOBIBL

book

bibliographybible

biosBIO

life

biographybionicsbiopsy

blasphemein

speak evil of

BLASPHEMY

caco

badpoorevil

CACOPHONY

CAUTCAUST

burn

cauterizeCAUSTIC

center

center

center

cephal

head

encephalitis

chiroCHIR

hand

chiropractorcriropter

chroma

color

monochromatic

chronosCHRON

time

chronicleCHRONOLOGYSYNCHRONIZE

CLIN

lean

inclinethermocline

cosmosCOSM

orderworld

cosmologycosmic

CRATCRAS

type of government

bureaucrattheocracydemocracy

CRIT

judge

criticize

cryptoCRYPT

hideconceal

ENCRYPTIONCRYPTOGRAM

cyclosCYCLE

circlewheel

bicyclecyclorama

Cynicus

a Greek philosopher

CYNICcynicism

deleisthaideleterios

destroyerharmful

DELETERIOUS

demosDEMDEMO

the people

ENDEMICdemographicdemocrat

dendron

tree

dendroid

dermaDERM

skin

dermatologyhypodermicendodermic

diatribe

a wearing away

DIATRIBE

didakikos

apt at speaking

DIDACTICS

didonaidosis

give

dosedosage

doxoDOX

beliefopinion

ORTHODOXHETERODOXYdoxology

dranDRA

to do, act

DRAMATIZE

DROM

running course

aerodrome

dynamisDYN

forcepower

dynamicdynamodyne

eidyllion

formfigureimage

idyllIDYLLIC

eirene

peace

IRENIC

eiron

dissemble in speech

ironyIRONICironical

eklegein

to select, pick out

ECLECTIC

elektronELECTRO

amber (electric)

electron

ekleipsis

a defect, fall short

ellipsisellipticalELLIPSE

enkomion

hymn to a victor

ENCOMIUM

ENTOM

insect

entomology

EP

word

epigraph

ephemeros

for the day, shortlived

EPHEMERALephemerisephemeron

episteme

knowledge

EPISTEMOLOGY

ergonERG

workdeed

ergonomic

esoteikos

inner

ESOTERIC

esthesia

feel sensation

anesthesiaAESTHETICS

ETHER

upper air

ETHEREAL

ethnosETHN

nationpeople

ethnic

ethosETH

charactermoral

ethosethical

ETYM

root

etymology

exo

outside

exocarp

galakt

milk

galactic

gamosGAM

marriage

polygamymonogamy

gastro

bellystomach

gastricgastritis

genoGEN

kindtyperace

genderGenesis

geGEO

earth

geographygeodesicgeometryapogee

glossalGLOT

language

polyglotglossarymonoglot

GLYPH

carving

HIEROGLYPHICSpetroglyph

GNOGNOS

know

diagnosisignoreincognitocognitive

GON

angle

polygonpentagon

gonos

to produce

cosmogonytheogony

grammagram

writtendrawn

telegramlithography

grapheinGRAM

writerecord

telegram

grapheinGRAPH

writerecord

graphic

GYN

woman

gynecologyMISOGYNY

hedonikos

pleasure

hedonicHEDONISTIChedonism

hedrahedron

sidebase

hexahedralpolyhedron

hemi

half

hemisphere

hemohemaHEM

blood

hemoglobinhemorrhagehemotoma

homosHOMO

one and the same

homonymhomogeneoushomosexual

heliosHELIO

sun

heliocentricheliotropicaphelion

helixHELIC

spiral

helixhelicoid

hemisushemi

half

hemisphere

hiero

sacredholy

HIEROGLYPHIC

hipposHIPP

horse

hippodrome

histanaiSTASTE

stand

STATIC

hybris

exaggerated pride

HUBRIS

hydorHYDR

water

hydrotherapyhydrologyhydroponics

hypno

sleep

hypnosishypnotoxin

hypocrita

stage actor

HYPOCRITEHYPOCRISY

ICON

image

icon

ICTHY

fish

ichthyology

ideo

idea

ideogram

irisIRID

rainbowiris

IRIDESCENT

isosISO

equalalike

isometricisotope

k(c)ine, KINECINE

movement

kinestheticcinema

k(c)ardia), CARD

heart

cardiac

k(c)lastes

breakerbroken

ICONOCLAST

K(C)LINO, CLI

to bend, slant

inclinationdeclinationdeclinerecline

k(c)oma

deep sleep

comatose

k(c)ranion

skull

cranial

k(c) risis, CRIT

to sift, separate

crisiscriterioncriticcritical

K(C)RYPTO

hidden

cryptCRYPTICcryptography

lakon

a Lanconian, Spartan

LACONIC

laos

the people

laitylaicliturgy

latreia

serviceworship

idolatry

legein

to choose, pick

LOGIC

lemma

proposition

DILEMMA

lithosLITH

stone

megalith

logosLOG

wordreasonstudy

monologuelogic

lysis

loosen

analysiselectrolysis

macrosmacro

enlarged

macrocosm

malagma

an emollient

AMALGAM

mania

madness

pyromaniakleptomania

mega

largepowerful

megalith

megalo

greatenlarged

megalomania

metronMETER

measure

metricgeometricalthermometer

microsmicro

small

microcosm

mimosMIM

imitate

mimeMIMIC

miseinMISMISO

hate

MISANTHROPEmisogynist

mnem

 

memorymnemonic

monos

onealone

monoclemonosyllable

MORPH

formshape

amorphousmetamorphosis

mucusmuco

slime

mucous

mytho

myth

mythological

nausnautesNAU

shipsailor

nauticalastronaut

necro

deathcorpse

necropolis

neosNEO

newyoung

NEOPHYTEneologism

neuronneuro

nerve

neurologyneuritis

nom

rule

ANOMALYANOMALOUS

nomos

lawscience

astronomer

nostos

a return

NOSTALGIA

oasis

fertile spot

OASIS

od

path

exodus

odont

tooth

odontoidodontology

oikos

house

ecology

oikonomia

household management

economyECONOMICAL

oligio

fewscantsmall

oligarchy

onomaONYM

name

acronymhomonymANONYMOUS

opsisoptic

sightvieweye

opticianopticalSYNOPSISSYNOPTIC

ophthalmo

eye

ophthalmologist

ornisORNITH

bird

ornithology

oro

mountain

orology

orthos

rightcorrect

orthogenesis

OSTEO

bone

osteopath

paispaidos

child

pediatric

paleo

ancientearly

Paleolithic

panegyris

public meeting

PANEGYRIC

pasPANPANT

allentireevery

panoplyPANDEMONIUMpantheon

paterPATR

father

patricianpatronpaternalpatriarch

PATH

disease

PATHOLOGYPATHOGEN

pathosPATHO

feelingsuffering

EMPATHYANTIPATHYSYMPATHY

pedPED

childinstruction

pediatricencyclopediaPEDAGOGUE

pelagos

sea

pelagic

periphos

moving around

peripheryPERIPHERAL

petrosPETR

rockstone

petrified

phagoPHAG

eateating

phagocyteesophagus

PHAN

show, make appear

phantomfantasyemphasis

philanthropia

love of mankind

PHILANTHROPY

philosPHIL

lovetendency

philharmonicphilatelyphilosophybibliophile

phobosPHOB

fearflight

zoophobia

phonePHON

voicesound

phonographtelephoneEUPHONYCACOPHONY

phosPHOT

light

photograph

phyloPHYLL

leaf

chlorophyll

physicaPHYS

nature

physicalphysicianphysicsMETAPHYSICS

plasmplast

shapesubstance

plasmaplastic

plethore

to be full

PLETHORA

PLUT

wealth

plutocrat

pneumaPNEUM

windspirit

pneumatic

pneumon

lung

pneumonia

POD

foot

podiatrist

polemikospolemos

a war

POLEMIC

politpolis

city

cosmopolitanmetropolitan

polys

many

polynomial

pratteinPRAG

do

PRAGMATICpragmatism

poblema

to throw forward

problemPROBLEMATIC

protosPROTO

first

prototypeprotonprotozoa

pseudesPSEUDO

false

pseudosciencepseudointellectual

psychePSYCH

mindsoul

parapsychologypsychosis

ptero

featherwing

pterosaur

pyropurPYR

fire

pyrotechnicspyromaniac

RHEARHAG

flowgushbreak

diarrheahemorrhage

rhisRHIN

nose

rhinologyrhinoscope

rhiza

root

rhizoidrhizome

schismaSCHISSCHIZ

cleavesplit

schismschistschizophrenic

scopos

to watch, see

telescope

seismo

earthquake

seismic

SEPT

poison, from rot

septic

SKEPSCOP

examine, look at

SKEPTICALscope

SOMA

body

SOMATIC

sophosSOPH

wise

sophisticatedsophomoricsophist

spermaSPERM

seed

sperm

sphero

sphereball

atmospherespheroid

STAT

stand

statusELECTROSTATIC

stizeinSTIG

marktattoo

STIGMA

stoa

porch

StoicismSTOICstoical

STROPH

turn

catastrophe

TACTTAX

arrangement

tacticssyntax

TAPH

tomb

EPITAPH

techneTECH

artcraftskill

technicaltectonictechnocrattechnician

TELE

far away

telemetrytelescope

temnotomos

cut, cut off

appendectomylobotomy

tetra

four

tetrarch

thanatos

death

thanatopisthanatologyEUTHANASIA

theosTHEO

god

THEOLOGYatheisttheocracy

THERAP

cure

therapeutic

thermosTHERM

heatwarmhot

thermometerthermodynamicsthermograph

thesis

position

SYNTHESISthesis

thorax

body

thorax

temneinTOM

cut

appendectomytomeepitomeDICHOTOMY

tonosTON

tone

monotoneTONIC

topoTOP

place

topographytopic

TOX

poison

toxic

tracheiatracheo

windpipe

tracheotomy

TROP

respond to

trophy

TROPH

nourish

ATROPHY

typos

typemodel

typifytypicaltypicalatypical

xenosxeno

stranger

xenophobiaxenophiliaxenial

zelos

ardorzeal

ZEALOUSzealot

zooZO

animal

zoozoology

 

9. Greek, Latin, French, Italian, Spanish, German phrases and words

One of the most creative aspects of the English language is the absorbsion of foreign words and phrases. Quite often there are no precise English words to describe some particular thing or action so that expression or word is taken as is from the French, Italian and Latin language. English has also taken many words from literature and mythology. These words are included here for your information and education. You may not see many of them on the vocabulary section of the SAT, but you will see them in your reading and be expected to understand and use them in your college writing.

Ab Ovo (From the egg) From the beginning.

Ad hoc (To this) For this special purpose. For a special case only without general application.

Ad lib ad libitum ( it pleases) At pleasure; as one pleases. To improvise spontaneously; spoken or done extemporaneously.

Ad hominem (To the man) Appealing to ones prejudices rather than reason.

Ad infinitum (To infinity) Endlessly; forever; without limit.

Ad nauseam To the point of disgust; to a sickening degree.

Adonis A very handsome young man. Adonis was the youth loved by Aphrodite in Greek mythology

Affaire d’ amour A love affair.

Affaire de coeur Affair of the heart; a love affair.

Affaire d honneur An affair of honor; a duel.

Aficionado A devoted follower of some sport; a devotee.

A’ haute voix (In high voice) Aloud.

A’ la carte All menu items are priced separately.

A la francaise In the French manner.

A la mode In the fashion of; stylish.

A la morte (to the death) Seriously ill; dejected; mortally.

Al dente (to the tooth) Firm to the bite: chewy.

Al fresco (In the cool) In the open air.

Alma mater (FOSTER mother) The college or school that one attended; it’s official anthem or hymn.

Alpha and Omega (First and last letters of the Greek alphabet) The beginning and the end. The be all and end all.

Amor Patriae Love of ones’ country; patriotism.

Animus (Soul, mind, passion) An animating force or underlying purpose; intention.

Anno Domini (A.D.) In the year of the Lord. Used to indicate that a time division falls within the Christian era.

Ante diluvian Before the Bibical flood. Extremely old; old fashioned or primitive.

Ante meridian (AM) Before noon.

Ante mortem Made or done just before ones’ death.

A posteriori (From what comes later) From effect to cause, or from particular instances to a generalization; Empirical. Opposed to a priori.

A priori From cause to effect or from a generalization to particular instances; deductively. Opposed to a posteriori.

Apropos (English spelling), ƒ propos (French spelling) At the right time; fitting the occasion; RELEVANT. Apropos of-; in connection with.

Aqua vitae (Water of life) Brandy or strong liquor.

Arriviste A person who has recently gained power, wealth and success and is regarded as an upstart; PARVENU.

Ars longa, vita brevis Art is long, life is short.

Ars poetica The art of poetry.

Au courant Informed, up to date.

Au contraire On the contrary.

Au naturel In the natural state; nude.

Au pair An arrangement in which services are exchanged on an even basis.

Avant garde The leaders in new or UNCONVENTIONAL movements, especially in the arts. Vanguard.

A votre sant¾ To your health. A toast in drinking.

Bacchanal A devotee of Bacchus, the Greek god of wine. A wild, uninhibited and drunken orgy.

Banal Dull or stale because of overuse. TRITE; HACKNEYED

Bas-relief Sculpture in which figures are carved in a flat surface so that they project only a little from the background.

Belles-letters Literature as one of the fine arts.

BÃ te noire (Black beast) A person or thing feared, disliked and avoided.

Billet-doux A love letter.

Bistro A small wine shop, restaurant, nightclub or bar.

Blasé Bored from overindulgence.

Bonbon A small piece of candy

Bon homie Good nature; a pleasant, affable manner.

Bon mot (Good word) An apt, clever or witty remark.

Bon vivant A person who enjoys good food, good wine and good times.

Bon voyage Pleasant journey; a farewell to a traveler.

Bona fide Made in good faith; the real thing.

Boutique A small shop where fashionable expensive clothes and other items are sold.

Bourgeois A person whose beliefs, attitudes and practices are conventionally middle class. CONVENTIONAL;smug; materialistic.

Boutonniere A flower worn in a lapel buttonhole.

Bowdlerize To expunge a book by omitting or modifing parts considered vulgar. To modify by abridging, simplifying, or distorting in style or content. From Thomas Bowdler, an 18th century Englishman who tried to expurgate the works of Shakespeare.

Boycott To engage in a concerted refusal to have any dealings with a person, store or organization as a form of protest and coercion. Charles C. Boycott was a English land agent in Ireland who refused to lower rents.

Braggadocio A braggart. Vain, noisy boasting.

Bravado Pretended courage or defiant confidence where there is little or none.

Bravura A bold attempt or display of daring; dash.

Carte blanche (White card) i.e. A paper bearing only a signature, allowing the beared to fill in conditions. Full authority.

Cassandra A daughter of Priam endowded with the gift of prophecy but fated never to be believed. One who predicts misfortune or disaster.

Causus belli (An occurrence of war) An event provoking war or the used as a pretext for making war.

Cause c¾ lÀ bre A celebrated law case, trial or controversy. Popular cause or issue.

Caveat emptor (Buyer beware) One buys at his own risk.

Charg¾ d’affaires A diplomatic official sent to a foreign nation to represent his government.

Chauvinism Excessive or blind patriotism. Undue partiality or attachment to a group or place to which one belongs. An attitude of superiority towards members of the opposite sex. From Nicholas Chauvin, a character noted for his excessive patriotism and devotion to Napoleon in the French play La Cocarde Tricolore.

Chiaroscuro (Italian for clear dark) From the Latin clarus-clear + obscurus-dark. The treatment of light and shade in a painting or drawing to produce the illusion of depth. Sometimes used to describe a personality that’s a bit two sided.

Chimera A fire-breathing she-monster in Greek mythology having a lion’s head, a goat’s body, and a serpent’s tail. An illusion or fabrication of the mind; an unrealizable dream.

Cinematheque A place where early avante-garde motion pictures are collected and shown.

Circa (c.) About. Used to identify a period of time when the exact date is unknown.

Circe In Homer’s Odessey, an enchantress who turned men into pigs.

Comme il faut As it should be; proper; fitting

Commedia del l’arte A type of Italian comedy with stereotyped plot, improvised dialogue and stock characters.

CONNOISSEUR A person who has expert knowledge and ken discrimination in some field, especially the fine arts or in matters of taste.

Corps de ballet The ensemble of a ballet company.

Corpus delicti (Body of the crime) The facts constituting or proving a crime.

Coup de gr­ce Death blow; a finishing stroke.

Coup d’¾ tat The sudden, forcible overthrow of a government; coup.

Couture The business of designing new fashions in womans’ clothes.

Crème de la crème The best of the best.

Crescendo A gradual increase in loudness or intensity.

Croix de guerre A French military decoration for bravery in action.

Cui bono? Who benefits? Who stands to gain? An assumption that the person who benefits the most might have committed the crime or questionable act.

Cuisine The style of cooking. Manner of preparing food.

Cul-de-sac A passage or position with only one exit. A blind alley. A situation from which there is no escape.

Culpa Fault; guilt; NEGLIGENCE

Cum laude With praise; Graduarion with honors.

Curriculum vitae (C.V.) (Course of life) A complete summary of ones personal history and professional qualifications as submitted by a job applicant. Much more detailed than a resume.

Déclassé Lowered in social status.

Decolletage The neckline or top of a dress cut low so as to bear the neck and shoulders thereby revealing cleavage.

De facto Existing or being such in actual fact though not by legal establishment or official recognition.

De jure By right or legal establishment.

Déjà vu (Already seen) The illusion that one has previously had an experience that is actually new to one.

Delirium tremens A violent delirium with hallucinations resulting chiefly from excessive drinking.

De marche A line of action; move or countermove.

Denouement The outcome, solution,or unraveling of a plot in a drama or story; any final revelation or outcome.

De profundis From the deepest sorrow or misery.

Détente A lessing of tension or hostilities between nations through treaties and trade agreements.

De rigueur Required by custom or fashion; indispensible

Deus ex machina In ancient Greek and Roman plays, a deity brought in by stage machinery to intervene in the action. Any unconvincing character or event brought artificially into the plot of a story to settle an involved situation in a quick and easy manner.

Dishabille The state of being only partially dressed, or in night clothing.

Dolce vita (Sweet life) A casual way of life.

Doppelganger (doppel- double + ganger-goer) A ghostly counterpart of a living person; a double; alter ego; a person who has the same name as another.

Double-entendre A term with two meanings where one of them has a risque or INDECOROUS connotation.

Draconian Characteristic of Draco or his severe code of laws. A cruel, harsh punishment. From Draco, a particularly harsh Athenian lawgiver.

‹clat Brilliant or CONSPICUOUS success.

Élan Spirited self assurance; verve; dash; PANACHE.

Embarras de richesses An embarrassment of wealth. Too much to choose from.

Émigré A person forced to flee his country for political reasons.

‹minence grise A person who wields great power and influence, but secretely or unofficially.

Enamor To fill with love and charm.

Enfranchise To free from slavery; to admit to citizenship; the right to vote. Disenfranchise, or disfranchise means to deprive one of the rights of citizenship,or the right to vote; to deprive of a privilege, right or power.

En garde In fencing, the opening position from which one may attack or defend. Usually given to warn someone to defend themselves prior to attacking them.

Entourage A group of associates or attendants; retinue.

E pluribus unum Out of many, one. The motto of the U.S.

Esprit de corps Group spirit; sense of pride and honor shared by those in the same group.

Et alii (et al.) And others.

Et cetera (etc.) And others; and the like; and the rest; and so forth. Note: Using etc. in formal writing is inappropriate. In general, you should rewrite to avoid its use and never ever write "and etc."

Etceteras Additional things; customary extras.

Et sequens (et seq.) And following.

Ex cathedra With the authority that comes from one’s rank or office.

Exempli gratia (e.g.) For example.

Ex officio By virtue of one’s office or position.

Ex post facto Done or made afterwards, especially when having retroactive effect.

Extempore Without preparation; offhand.

Fait accompli (An accomplished fact) A thing already done so that opposition or argument is useless.

Falsetto A very high pitched male voice.

Fauna The animals of a specified region or time.

Flora The plants of a specified region or time.

Faux pas (False step) A social blunder; error in etiquette; tactless act or remark.

Femme fatale An alluring woman, especially one who leads men to their downfall or ruin.

Fiasco A complete failure.

Fin de siÀcle (End of the century) Formerly used to refer to progressive ideas and customs, but now generally used to indicate decadence.

Forte The thing that a person does particulary well.

Gauche Left handed; clumsy; or INEPT.

Habeas corpus An order requiring that a detained person be brought before a court at a stated time and place to decide the legality of his detention. This law safeguards one against illegal detention or imprisonment.

Habitu¾ A person who frequents a certain place or places.

Halcyon Calm, peaceful prosperous times. A bird identified with the kingfisher and held in ancient times to nest at sea at the time of the Winter solstice and calm the waves.

Haut mond¾ High society.

Herculean Of or relating to Hercules, a mythical Greek hero renowned for his great strength. Requiring extraordinary power or strength.

Hermetic Relating to the Gnostic writings of Hermes Trismegistus, a legendary author of works embodying magical, astrological, and alchemical doctrines. Relating to occultism or abstruseness; recondite. Also the belief that he invented a magic seal to keep vessels airtight. Impervious to external influence.

Homo sapiens Modern man; mankind; human being.

Hors de combat Put out of action; disabled.

Hors d’oeuvres Appetizers; canapes; party snacks.

Hydra A many headed monster in Greek mythology slain by Hercules. A multifarious evil not overcome by a single effort.

Ibidem (ibid) In the same place. Used in refering to the book, or page previously cited.

Ide¾ fixe A fixed idea; obsession.

Idem The same as that previously mentioned.

Id est (i.e.) That is (to say.)

Idiot savant (Wise idiot.) A mentally retarded person who possesses some remarkable special aptitude for music, memorization or rapid mental calculation.

Ignoratio elenchi The fallacy of irrelevant conclusion or missing the point where a proposition other than the one at issue is established by appel to emotion.

Imbroglio An involved and confusing situation. A confused misunderstanding or disagreement.

Impasse Dead end. An argument where no agreement is possible; deadlock.

In Absentia (In Absence) Although not present.

Infra dig(nitatem) Beneath one’s dignity.

In flagrant delicto In the act of commiting the offense; red-handed.

Ingénue An innocent, naïve young woman. An actress playing such a role in the theater.

Imprimature License or permission to publish or print a book, or article. Specifically such permission as granted by an ecclesiastical order.

IMPROMPTU Without preparation or advanced thought.

Incognito With true identity unrevealed or disguised; under an assumed name.

In memoriam In memory of.

Innuendo An indirect remark, gesture or reference, usually implying something derogatory; an insinuation.

Insouciance Calm and unbothered; carefree; INDIFFERENT.

Ipso facto By the very fact.

In perpetuum Forever.

Inter alia Among other things.

Inter alias Among other persons.

Inter nos Between ourselves.

Interregnum An interval between two successive reigns when the country has no sovereign.

In vino veritas In wine there is truth. Alcohol relaxes inhibitions and allows people to speak their minds freely.

Jejune Lacking nutritive value. Devoid of significance or intrest; dull. Juvenile and puerile in regard to life and art.

J’accuse (I accuse) Any strong accusation or denunciation.

Joie de vivre Joy of living; zestful enjoyment of life.

Junoesque A woman marked by stately beauty. From Juno, the Roman goddess of light, birth, women and marriage and the wife of Jupiter.

Junta A small military ruling group responsible for the overthrow of the previous government rulers.

Laissez faire The policy of letting people act without interference or direction.

Lilliputian Small, miniture; petty. An undersized individual. Relating to the Lilliputians or the island of Lilliput, an island in Swift’s book, Gulliver’s Travels where the inhabitants are six inches tall.

Loco citato (loc. cit.) In the place cited.

Lothario A man whose chief interest is seducing women. A seduced in the play The Fair Penitent by Nicholas Rowe.

Machiavellian Of or relating to Niccolo Machiavelli, author of The Prince, and suggesting his principles of conduct emphasising cunning, duplicity and bad faith. Machiavellianism is his view that politics is amoral and that any means, however unscrupulous, can justifiably be used in achieving political power.

Macho A strong virile man; masculine, manly.

Magna cum laude With great praise. Signifies graduation with high honors.

Magnum opus A great work, especially of art or literature; masterpiece. A person’s greatest work or undertaking.

Maitre d Headwaiter.

Malaise A vague feeling of physical discomfort or uneasiness, as early in an illness.

Mal de mer Seasickness.

Martinet A strict militaristic disciplinarian. From Jean Martinet, a 19th century French General.

Maverick An unbranded range animal; a motherless calf. An independent individual who does not go along with the group. A nonconformist. Taken from Samuel Maverick, a 19th century Texas rancher who did not brand his calfs.

Mea culpa Through my fault

Mélange A mixture or medley; hodgepodge.

Mercurial Relating to Mercury, the Roman god of travel and cunning. Having qualities of eloquence, ingenuity or thievishness attributed to the god Mercury. Rapid and unpredictable changeableness of mood.

Modus operandi Mode of operation. A way of doing or making; any established procedure.

Modus vivendi Manner of living or of getting along.

Mores Folkways that are considered conductive to the welfare of society and so, through general observance, develop the force of law, often becoming part of the formal legal code.

Ménage ´ trois An arrangement by which a married couple and the lover of one of them live together.

Mot juste The right word; the exact appropriate word or phrase.

Motif A main element, idea,or feature to be elaborated on or developed in art, music or literature.

Narcissistic Narcissus was a beautiful youth in Greek mythology who pines away for love of his own reflection and is turned into the narcissus flower. Self-absorbed and exceedingly vain.

Nemesis Nemesis was the Greek god of retributive justice. One that inflicts retribution or vengeance. A formidable opponent.

Noblesse oblige Honorable behavior expected of someone of high birth or rank.

Nolo contendere (I do not wish to contend.) Acceptance of the facts in an indictment, as opposed to a formal plea of guilty, on which a judge would pass judgment.

Non compos mentis (Not of sound mind.) Legally insane or incompetent.

Nom de plume Pen name; pseudonym. A false name used to hide an authors true identity

Nom de guerre A pseudonym. False name used in under cover operations.

Non sequitur A conclusion or inference which does not follow from the premises. A remark having no bearing on what was just said.

Nota bene (n.b.) Note well. Take particular notice.

Nouveau riche A person who has only recently become rich; often connoting tasteless ostentation and lack of culture.

Odyssey In Homer’s poem the Odyssey, Odysseus was the king of Ithaca and leader of the Greeks in the Trojan War, who after the war wanders 10 years before reaching home. A long wandering or voyage usually marked by many changes of fortune. An intellectual or spiritual quest.

Opere citato (op. cit.) In the work previously cited.

Outr¾ Eccentric; bizarre

Par excellence In the greatest degree of excellence; beyond comparison; preeminently; the epitome of something.

Parvenu A person who has suddenly acquired wealth or power, especially one who is not fully accepted socially by the class into which he has risen; upstart.

Per Contra On the contrary; By way of contrast; As an offset

Per se By or in itself; intrinsically.

Personna The characters of a drama, play or novel. The outer personality or FAÇADE presented to others by an individual.

PiÀ ce de résistance The principle dish of a meal. The main item or event. An outstanding accomplishment.

Prima facie At first sight; on first view. Evidence adequate to establish a fact or raise a PRESUMPTION of fact unless refuted.

Post meridiem (PM) After noon.

Post scriptum (P.S.) Postscript. A note added below the signature line of a letter as an afterthought.

Pro bono publico (For the public good.) Free legal representation for a beneficial cause.

Pro forma As a matter of form or custom.

Pro se (For himself.) Representing oneself in court rather than retaining a lawyer.

Pro tempore (pro tem) Temporarily

Prot¾ g¾ A person guided and helped, especially in the furtherance of his career, by another more influential person.

Provocateur Agitator; revolutionary.

Quasi As if; in a sense or manner; seamingly; in part; i.e. A quasi scholar. A quasi intellectual.

Qui vive? Who goes there? A sentry’s challenge. On the qui vive.(on the look out; on alert.)

Quid pro quo One thing in return for another. Something equivalent; substitute.

Quixotic Blindly idealistic and romantic. From the main character in Cervante’s Don Quixote de la Mancha.

Quod erat demonstratum (QED) Which was to be demonstrated or proved.

Quod vide (q.v.) Which see.

Raison d etre Reason for being.

Rapprochement Establishing or restoring harmony and friendly relations.

Recherch¾ Rare; choice; uncommon. Having refinement or studied elegance. Too refined; too studied

Repartee A quick, witty reply. A series of such rejoinders.

Respondez s’il vous plaÐ t (RSVP) Please reply. Usually found on formal invitations. The recipient is obligated to respond as to their acceptance. Whether you plan on accepting or not, you must let the host know either way as soon as possible but not later than the given date. To not respond or to say that you can’t accept and then to show up is as serious a breach of etiquette as responding affirmatively and then failing to attend.

Rosetta Stone A black basalt stone found in 1799 with both Egypian heiroglyphics and Greek writing, which enabled archiologists to translate Egypian heiroglyphics for the first time. Something that gives a clue to understanding.

Sadism To take delight in the cruel infliction of physical or mental pain on others. Named after the French nobleman the Marquis de Sade. Masochism is the infliction of pain on oneself for pleasure.

Sangfroid (Cold blood) Cool self-possession or composure.

Sanguine Of the color of blood; ruddy complexion. Cheerful and confident; optimistic; hopeful.

Saturnine Gloomy or taciturn. From the Roman god Saturn.

Savoir faire Ready knowledge of what to do or say, and of when and how to do or say it.

Semper fidelis Always faithful. Motto of the U.S. Marine Corps.

Sic So, thus. Intentional