爬虫scrapy

2019年12月07日 阅读数:50
这篇文章主要向大家介绍爬虫scrapy,主要内容包括基础应用、实用技巧、原理机制等方面,希望对大家有所帮助。

性能相关

在编写爬虫时,性能的消耗主要在IO请求中,当单进程单线程模式下请求URL时必然会引发等待,从而使得请求总体变慢。html

import requests

def fetch_async(url):
    response = requests.get(url)
    return response


url_list = ['http://www.github.com', 'http://www.bing.com']

for url in url_list:
    fetch_async(url)
同步执行
from concurrent.futures import ThreadPoolExecutor
import requests


def fetch_async(url):
    response = requests.get(url)
    return response


url_list = ['http://www.github.com', 'http://www.bing.com']
pool = ThreadPoolExecutor(5)
for url in url_list:
    pool.submit(fetch_async, url)
pool.shutdown(wait=True)
2.多线程执行
from concurrent.futures import ThreadPoolExecutor
import requests

def fetch_async(url):
    response = requests.get(url)
    return response


def callback(future):
    print(future.result())


url_list = ['http://www.github.com', 'http://www.bing.com']
pool = ThreadPoolExecutor(5)
for url in url_list:
    v = pool.submit(fetch_async, url)
    v.add_done_callback(callback)
pool.shutdown(wait=True)
2.多线程+回调函数执行
from concurrent.futures import ProcessPoolExecutor
import requests

def fetch_async(url):
    response = requests.get(url)
    return response


url_list = ['http://www.github.com', 'http://www.bing.com']
pool = ProcessPoolExecutor(5)
for url in url_list:
    pool.submit(fetch_async, url)
pool.shutdown(wait=True)
3.多进程执行

 

from concurrent.futures import ProcessPoolExecutor
import requests


def fetch_async(url):
    response = requests.get(url)
    return response


def callback(future):
    print(future.result())


url_list = ['http://www.github.com', 'http://www.bing.com']
pool = ProcessPoolExecutor(5)
for url in url_list:
    v = pool.submit(fetch_async, url)
    v.add_done_callback(callback)
pool.shutdown(wait=True)
3.多进程+回调函数执行

 

经过上述代码都可以完成对请求性能的提升,对于多线程和多进行的缺点是在IO阻塞时会形成了线程和进程的浪费,因此异步IO回事首选:python

import asyncio


@asyncio.coroutine
def func1():
    print('before...func1......')
    yield from asyncio.sleep(5)
    print('end...func1......')


tasks = [func1(), func1()]

loop = asyncio.get_event_loop()
loop.run_until_complete(asyncio.gather(*tasks))
loop.close()
1.asyncio示例1
import asyncio


@asyncio.coroutine
def fetch_async(host, url='/'):
    print(host, url)
    reader, writer = yield from asyncio.open_connection(host, 80)

    request_header_content = """GET %s HTTP/1.0\r\nHost: %s\r\n\r\n""" % (url, host,)
    request_header_content = bytes(request_header_content, encoding='utf-8')

    writer.write(request_header_content)
    yield from writer.drain()
    text = yield from reader.read()
    print(host, url, text)
    writer.close()

tasks = [
    fetch_async('www.cnblogs.com', '/wupeiqi/'),
    fetch_async('dig.chouti.com', '/pic/show?nid=4073644713430508&lid=10273091')
]

loop = asyncio.get_event_loop()
results = loop.run_until_complete(asyncio.gather(*tasks))
loop.close()
1.asyncio示例2
import aiohttp
import asyncio


@asyncio.coroutine
def fetch_async(url):
    print(url)
    response = yield from aiohttp.request('GET', url)
    # data = yield from response.read()
    # print(url, data)
    print(url, response)
    response.close()


tasks = [fetch_async('http://www.google.com/'), fetch_async('http://www.chouti.com/')]

event_loop = asyncio.get_event_loop()
results = event_loop.run_until_complete(asyncio.gather(*tasks))
event_loop.close()
2.asyncio + aiohttp
import asyncio
import requests


@asyncio.coroutine
def fetch_async(func, *args):
    loop = asyncio.get_event_loop()
    future = loop.run_in_executor(None, func, *args)
    response = yield from future
    print(response.url, response.content)


tasks = [
    fetch_async(requests.get, 'http://www.cnblogs.com/wupeiqi/'),
    fetch_async(requests.get, 'http://dig.chouti.com/pic/show?nid=4073644713430508&lid=10273091')
]

loop = asyncio.get_event_loop()
results = loop.run_until_complete(asyncio.gather(*tasks))
loop.close()
3.asyncio + requests
import gevent

import requests
from gevent import monkey

monkey.patch_all()


def fetch_async(method, url, req_kwargs):
    print(method, url, req_kwargs)
    response = requests.request(method=method, url=url, **req_kwargs)
    print(response.url, response.content)

# ##### 发送请求 #####
gevent.joinall([
    gevent.spawn(fetch_async, method='get', url='https://www.python.org/', req_kwargs={}),
    gevent.spawn(fetch_async, method='get', url='https://www.yahoo.com/', req_kwargs={}),
    gevent.spawn(fetch_async, method='get', url='https://github.com/', req_kwargs={}),
])

# ##### 发送请求(协程池控制最大协程数量) #####
# from gevent.pool import Pool
# pool = Pool(None)
# gevent.joinall([
#     pool.spawn(fetch_async, method='get', url='https://www.python.org/', req_kwargs={}),
#     pool.spawn(fetch_async, method='get', url='https://www.yahoo.com/', req_kwargs={}),
#     pool.spawn(fetch_async, method='get', url='https://www.github.com/', req_kwargs={}),
# ])
4.gevent + requests

 

import grequests


request_list = [
    grequests.get('http://httpbin.org/delay/1', timeout=0.001),
    grequests.get('http://fakedomain/'),
    grequests.get('http://httpbin.org/status/500')
]


# ##### 执行并获取响应列表 #####
# response_list = grequests.map(request_list)
# print(response_list)


# ##### 执行并获取响应列表(处理异常) #####
# def exception_handler(request, exception):
# print(request,exception)
#     print("Request failed")

# response_list = grequests.map(request_list, exception_handler=exception_handler)
# print(response_list)
5.grequests
from twisted.web.client import getPage, defer
from twisted.internet import reactor


def all_done(arg):
    reactor.stop()


def callback(contents):
    print(contents)


deferred_list = []

url_list = ['http://www.bing.com', 'http://www.baidu.com', ]
for url in url_list:
    deferred = getPage(bytes(url, encoding='utf8'))
    deferred.addCallback(callback)
    deferred_list.append(deferred)

dlist = defer.DeferredList(deferred_list)
dlist.addBoth(all_done)

reactor.run()
6.Twisted示例
from tornado.httpclient import AsyncHTTPClient
from tornado.httpclient import HTTPRequest
from tornado import ioloop


def handle_response(response):
    """
    处理返回值内容(须要维护计数器,来中止IO循环),调用 ioloop.IOLoop.current().stop()
    :param response: 
    :return: 
    """
    if response.error:
        print("Error:", response.error)
    else:
        print(response.body)


def func():
    url_list = [
        'http://www.baidu.com',
        'http://www.bing.com',
    ]
    for url in url_list:
        print(url)
        http_client = AsyncHTTPClient()
        http_client.fetch(HTTPRequest(url), handle_response)


ioloop.IOLoop.current().add_callback(func)
ioloop.IOLoop.current().start()
7.Tornado
from twisted.internet import reactor
from twisted.web.client import getPage
import urllib.parse


def one_done(arg):
    print(arg)
    reactor.stop()

post_data = urllib.parse.urlencode({'check_data': 'adf'})
post_data = bytes(post_data, encoding='utf8')
headers = {b'Content-Type': b'application/x-www-form-urlencoded'}
response = getPage(bytes('http://dig.chouti.com/login', encoding='utf8'),
                   method=bytes('POST', encoding='utf8'),
                   postdata=post_data,
                   cookies={},
                   headers=headers)
response.addBoth(one_done)

reactor.run()
Twisted更多

 

 

以上均是Python内置以及第三方模块提供异步IO请求模块,使用简便大大提升效率,而对于异步IO请求的本质则是【非阻塞Socket】+【IO多路复用】:react

import select
import socket
import time


class AsyncTimeoutException(TimeoutError):
    """
    请求超时异常类
    """

    def __init__(self, msg):
        self.msg = msg
        super(AsyncTimeoutException, self).__init__(msg)


class HttpContext(object):
    """封装请求和相应的基本数据"""

    def __init__(self, sock, host, port, method, url, data, callback, timeout=5):
        """
        sock: 请求的客户端socket对象
        host: 请求的主机名
        port: 请求的端口
        port: 请求的端口
        method: 请求方式
        url: 请求的URL
        data: 请求时请求体中的数据
        callback: 请求完成后的回调函数
        timeout: 请求的超时时间
        """
        self.sock = sock
        self.callback = callback
        self.host = host
        self.port = port
        self.method = method
        self.url = url
        self.data = data

        self.timeout = timeout

        self.__start_time = time.time()
        self.__buffer = []

    def is_timeout(self):
        """当前请求是否已经超时"""
        current_time = time.time()
        if (self.__start_time + self.timeout) < current_time:
            return True

    def fileno(self):
        """请求sockect对象的文件描述符,用于select监听"""
        return self.sock.fileno()

    def write(self, data):
        """在buffer中写入响应内容"""
        self.__buffer.append(data)

    def finish(self, exc=None):
        """在buffer中写入响应内容完成,执行请求的回调函数"""
        if not exc:
            response = b''.join(self.__buffer)
            self.callback(self, response, exc)
        else:
            self.callback(self, None, exc)

    def send_request_data(self):
        content = """%s %s HTTP/1.0\r\nHost: %s\r\n\r\n%s""" % (
            self.method.upper(), self.url, self.host, self.data,)

        return content.encode(encoding='utf8')


class AsyncRequest(object):
    def __init__(self):
        self.fds = []
        self.connections = []

    def add_request(self, host, port, method, url, data, callback, timeout):
        """建立一个要请求"""
        client = socket.socket()
        client.setblocking(False)
        try:
            client.connect((host, port))
        except BlockingIOError as e:
            pass
            # print('已经向远程发送链接的请求')
        req = HttpContext(client, host, port, method, url, data, callback, timeout)
        self.connections.append(req)
        self.fds.append(req)

    def check_conn_timeout(self):
        """检查全部的请求,是否有已经链接超时,若是有则终止"""
        timeout_list = []
        for context in self.connections:
            if context.is_timeout():
                timeout_list.append(context)
        for context in timeout_list:
            context.finish(AsyncTimeoutException('请求超时'))
            self.fds.remove(context)
            self.connections.remove(context)

    def running(self):
        """事件循环,用于检测请求的socket是否已经就绪,从而执行相关操做"""
        while True:
            r, w, e = select.select(self.fds, self.connections, self.fds, 0.05)

            if not self.fds:
                return

            for context in r:
                sock = context.sock
                while True:
                    try:
                        data = sock.recv(8096)
                        if not data:
                            self.fds.remove(context)
                            context.finish()
                            break
                        else:
                            context.write(data)
                    except BlockingIOError as e:
                        break
                    except TimeoutError as e:
                        self.fds.remove(context)
                        self.connections.remove(context)
                        context.finish(e)
                        break

            for context in w:
                # 已经链接成功远程服务器,开始向远程发送请求数据
                if context in self.fds:
                    data = context.send_request_data()
                    context.sock.sendall(data)
                    self.connections.remove(context)

            self.check_conn_timeout()


if __name__ == '__main__':
    def callback_func(context, response, ex):
        """
        :param context: HttpContext对象,内部封装了请求相关信息
        :param response: 请求响应内容
        :param ex: 是否出现异常(若是有异常则值为异常对象;不然值为None)
        :return:
        """
        print(context, response, ex)

    obj = AsyncRequest()
    url_list = [
        {'host': 'www.google.com', 'port': 80, 'method': 'GET', 'url': '/', 'data': '', 'timeout': 5,
         'callback': callback_func},
        {'host': 'www.baidu.com', 'port': 80, 'method': 'GET', 'url': '/', 'data': '', 'timeout': 5,
         'callback': callback_func},
        {'host': 'www.bing.com', 'port': 80, 'method': 'GET', 'url': '/', 'data': '', 'timeout': 5,
         'callback': callback_func},
    ]
    for item in url_list:
        print(item)
        obj.add_request(**item)

    obj.running()
史上最牛逼的异步IO模块

 

Scrapy

Scrapy是一个为了爬取网站数据,提取结构性数据而编写的应用框架。 其能够应用在数据挖掘,信息处理或存储历史数据等一系列的程序中。
其最初是为了页面抓取 (更确切来讲, 网络抓取 )所设计的, 也能够应用在获取API所返回的数据(例如 Amazon Associates Web Services ) 或者通用的网络爬虫。Scrapy用途普遍,能够用于数据挖掘、监测和自动化测试。git

Scrapy 使用了 Twisted异步网络库来处理网络通信。总体架构大体以下github

Scrapy主要包括了如下组件:web

  • 引擎(Scrapy)
    用来处理整个系统的数据流处理, 触发事务(框架核心)
  • 调度器(Scheduler)
    用来接受引擎发过来的请求, 压入队列中, 并在引擎再次请求的时候返回. 能够想像成一个URL(抓取网页的网址或者说是连接)的优先队列, 由它来决定下一个要抓取的网址是什么, 同时去除重复的网址
  • 下载器(Downloader)
    用于下载网页内容, 并将网页内容返回给蜘蛛(Scrapy下载器是创建在twisted这个高效的异步模型上的)
  • 爬虫(Spiders)
    爬虫是主要干活的, 用于从特定的网页中提取本身须要的信息, 即所谓的实体(Item)。用户也能够从中提取出连接,让Scrapy继续抓取下一个页面
  • 项目管道(Pipeline)
    负责处理爬虫从网页中抽取的实体,主要的功能是持久化实体、验证明体的有效性、清除不须要的信息。当页面被爬虫解析后,将被发送到项目管道,并通过几个特定的次序处理数据。
  • 下载器中间件(Downloader Middlewares)
    位于Scrapy引擎和下载器之间的框架,主要是处理Scrapy引擎与下载器之间的请求及响应。
  • 爬虫中间件(Spider Middlewares)
    介于Scrapy引擎和爬虫之间的框架,主要工做是处理蜘蛛的响应输入和请求输出。
  • 调度中间件(Scheduler Middewares)
    介于Scrapy引擎和调度之间的中间件,从Scrapy引擎发送到调度的请求和响应。

Scrapy运行流程大概以下:算法

  1. 引擎从调度器中取出一个连接(URL)用于接下来的抓取
  2. 引擎把URL封装成一个请求(Request)传给下载器
  3. 下载器把资源下载下来,并封装成应答包(Response)
  4. 爬虫解析Response
  5. 解析出实体(Item),则交给实体管道进行进一步的处理
  6. 解析出的是连接(URL),则把URL交给调度器等待抓取

1、安装json

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Linux
       pip3 install scrapy
 
 
Windows
       a. pip3 install wheel
       b. 下载twisted http: / / www.lfd.uci.edu / ~gohlke / pythonlibs / #twisted
       c. 进入下载目录,执行 pip3 install Twisted‑ 17.1 . 0 ‑cp35‑cp35m‑win_amd64.whl
       d. pip3 install scrapy
       e. 下载并安装pywin32:https: / / sourceforge.net / projects / pywin32 / files /

2、基本使用windows

1. 基本命令缓存

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1.  scrapy startproject 项目名称
    -  在当前目录中建立中建立一个项目文件(相似于Django)
 
2.  scrapy genspider [ - t template] <name> <domain>
    -  建立爬虫应用
    如:
       scrapy gensipider  - t basic oldboy oldboy.com
       scrapy gensipider  - t xmlfeed autohome autohome.com.cn
    PS:
       查看全部命令:scrapy gensipider  - l
       查看模板命令:scrapy gensipider  - d 模板名称
 
3.  scrapy  list
    -  展现爬虫应用列表
 
4.  scrapy crawl 爬虫应用名称
    -  运行单独爬虫应用

2.项目结构以及爬虫应用简介

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project_name /
    scrapy.cfg
    project_name /
        __init__.py
        items.py
        pipelines.py
        settings.py
        spiders /
            __init__.py
            爬虫 1.py
            爬虫 2.py
            爬虫 3.py

文件说明:

  • scrapy.cfg  项目的主配置信息。(真正爬虫相关的配置信息在settings.py文件中)
  • items.py    设置数据存储模板,用于结构化数据,如:Django的Model
  • pipelines    数据处理行为,如:通常结构化的数据持久化
  • settings.py 配置文件,如:递归的层数、并发数,延迟下载等
  • spiders      爬虫目录,如:建立文件,编写爬虫规则

注意:通常建立爬虫文件时,以网站域名命名

import scrapy
 
class XiaoHuarSpider(scrapy.spiders.Spider):
    name = "xiaohuar"                            # 爬虫名称 *****
    allowed_domains = ["xiaohuar.com"]  # 容许的域名
    start_urls = [
        "http://www.xiaohuar.com/hua/",   # 其实URL
    ]
 
    def parse(self, response):
        # 访问起始URL并获取结果后的回调函数
爬虫1
import sys,os
sys.stdout=io.TextIOWrapper(sys.stdout.buffer,encoding='gb18030')
关于windows编码

 

 

 

3. 小试牛刀

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import  scrapy
from  scrapy.selector  import  HtmlXPathSelector
from  scrapy.http.request  import  Request
 
 
class  DigSpider(scrapy.Spider):
     # 爬虫应用的名称,经过此名称启动爬虫命令
     name  =  "dig"
 
     # 容许的域名
     allowed_domains  =  [ "chouti.com" ]
 
     # 起始URL
     start_urls  =  [
         'http://dig.chouti.com/' ,
     ]
 
     has_request_set  =  {}
 
     def  parse( self , response):
         print (response.url)
 
         hxs  =  HtmlXPathSelector(response)
         page_list  =  hxs.select( '//div[@id="dig_lcpage"]//a[re:test(@href, "/all/hot/recent/\d+")]/@href' ).extract()
         for  page  in  page_list:
             page_url  =  'http://dig.chouti.com%s'  %  page
             key  =  self .md5(page_url)
             if  key  in  self .has_request_set:
                 pass
             else :
                 self .has_request_set[key]  =  page_url
                 obj  =  Request(url = page_url, method = 'GET' , callback = self .parse)
                 yield  obj
 
     @staticmethod
     def  md5(val):
         import  hashlib
         ha  =  hashlib.md5()
         ha.update(bytes(val, encoding = 'utf-8' ))
         key  =  ha.hexdigest()
         return  key

执行此爬虫文件,则在终端进入项目目录执行以下命令:

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scrapy crawl dig  - - nolog

对于上述代码重要之处在于:

  • Request是一个封装用户请求的类,在回调函数中yield该对象表示继续访问
  • HtmlXpathSelector用于结构化HTML代码并提供选择器功能

4. 选择器

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#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-
from  scrapy.selector  import  Selector, HtmlXPathSelector
from  scrapy.http  import  HtmlResponse
html  =  """<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
     <head lang="en">
         <meta charset="UTF-8">
         <title></title>
     </head>
     <body>
         <ul>
             <li class="item-"><a id='i1' href="link.html">first item</a></li>
             <li class="item-0"><a id='i2' href="llink.html">first item</a></li>
             <li class="item-1"><a href="llink2.html">second item<span>vv</span></a></li>
         </ul>
         <div><a href="llink2.html">second item</a></div>
     </body>
</html>
"""
response  =  HtmlResponse(url = 'http://example.com' , body = html,encoding = 'utf-8' )
# hxs = HtmlXPathSelector(response)
# print(hxs)
# hxs = Selector(response=response).xpath('//a')
# print(hxs)
# hxs = Selector(response=response).xpath('//a[2]')
# print(hxs)
# hxs = Selector(response=response).xpath('//a[@id]')
# print(hxs)
# hxs = Selector(response=response).xpath('//a[@id="i1"]')
# print(hxs)
# hxs = Selector(response=response).xpath('//a[@href="link.html"][@id="i1"]')
# print(hxs)
# hxs = Selector(response=response).xpath('//a[contains(@href, "link")]')
# print(hxs)
# hxs = Selector(response=response).xpath('//a[starts-with(@href, "link")]')
# print(hxs)
# hxs = Selector(response=response).xpath('//a[re:test(@id, "i\d+")]')
# print(hxs)
# hxs = Selector(response=response).xpath('//a[re:test(@id, "i\d+")]/text()').extract()
# print(hxs)
# hxs = Selector(response=response).xpath('//a[re:test(@id, "i\d+")]/@href').extract()
# print(hxs)
# hxs = Selector(response=response).xpath('/html/body/ul/li/a/@href').extract()
# print(hxs)
# hxs = Selector(response=response).xpath('//body/ul/li/a/@href').extract_first()
# print(hxs)
 
# ul_list = Selector(response=response).xpath('//body/ul/li')
# for item in ul_list:
#     v = item.xpath('./a/span')
#     # 或
#     # v = item.xpath('a/span')
#     # 或
#     # v = item.xpath('*/a/span')
#     print(v)

 

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
import scrapy
from scrapy.selector import HtmlXPathSelector
from scrapy.http.request import Request
from scrapy.http.cookies import CookieJar
from scrapy import FormRequest


class ChouTiSpider(scrapy.Spider):
    # 爬虫应用的名称,经过此名称启动爬虫命令
    name = "chouti"
    # 容许的域名
    allowed_domains = ["chouti.com"]

    cookie_dict = {}
    has_request_set = {}

    def start_requests(self):
        url = 'http://dig.chouti.com/'
        # return [Request(url=url, callback=self.login)]
        yield Request(url=url, callback=self.login)

    def login(self, response):
        cookie_jar = CookieJar()
        cookie_jar.extract_cookies(response, response.request)
        for k, v in cookie_jar._cookies.items():
            for i, j in v.items():
                for m, n in j.items():
                    self.cookie_dict[m] = n.value

        req = Request(
            url='http://dig.chouti.com/login',
            method='POST',
            headers={'Content-Type': 'application/x-www-form-urlencoded; charset=UTF-8'},
            body='phone=8615131255089&password=pppppppp&oneMonth=1',
            cookies=self.cookie_dict,
            callback=self.check_login
        )
        yield req

    def check_login(self, response):
        req = Request(
            url='http://dig.chouti.com/',
            method='GET',
            callback=self.show,
            cookies=self.cookie_dict,
            dont_filter=True
        )
        yield req

    def show(self, response):
        # print(response)
        hxs = HtmlXPathSelector(response)
        news_list = hxs.select('//div[@id="content-list"]/div[@class="item"]')
        for new in news_list:
            # temp = new.xpath('div/div[@class="part2"]/@share-linkid').extract()
            link_id = new.xpath('*/div[@class="part2"]/@share-linkid').extract_first()
            yield Request(
                url='http://dig.chouti.com/link/vote?linksId=%s' %(link_id,),
                method='POST',
                cookies=self.cookie_dict,
                callback=self.do_favor
            )

        page_list = hxs.select('//div[@id="dig_lcpage"]//a[re:test(@href, "/all/hot/recent/\d+")]/@href').extract()
        for page in page_list:

            page_url = 'http://dig.chouti.com%s' % page
            import hashlib
            hash = hashlib.md5()
            hash.update(bytes(page_url,encoding='utf-8'))
            key = hash.hexdigest()
            if key in self.has_request_set:
                pass
            else:
                self.has_request_set[key] = page_url
                yield Request(
                    url=page_url,
                    method='GET',
                    callback=self.show
                )

    def do_favor(self, response):
        print(response.text)
示例:自动登录抽屉并点赞
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
import scrapy
from scrapy.http.response.html import HtmlResponse
from scrapy.http import Request
from scrapy.http.cookies import CookieJar


class ChoutiSpider(scrapy.Spider):
    name = "chouti"
    allowed_domains = ["chouti.com"]
    start_urls = (
        'http://www.chouti.com/',
    )

    def start_requests(self):
        url = 'http://dig.chouti.com/'
        yield Request(url=url, callback=self.login, meta={'cookiejar': True})

    def login(self, response):
        print(response.headers.getlist('Set-Cookie'))
        req = Request(
            url='http://dig.chouti.com/login',
            method='POST',
            headers={'Content-Type': 'application/x-www-form-urlencoded; charset=UTF-8'},
            body='phone=8613121758648&password=woshiniba&oneMonth=1',
            callback=self.check_login,
            meta={'cookiejar': True}
        )
        yield req

    def check_login(self, response):
        print(response.text)
处理cookie

 

 

 

注意:settings.py中设置DEPTH_LIMIT = 1来指定“递归”的层数。

5. 格式化处理

上述实例只是简单的处理,因此在parse方法中直接处理。若是对于想要获取更多的数据处理,则能够利用Scrapy的items将数据格式化,而后统一交由pipelines来处理。

import scrapy
from scrapy.selector import HtmlXPathSelector
from scrapy.http.request import Request
from scrapy.http.cookies import CookieJar
from scrapy import FormRequest


class XiaoHuarSpider(scrapy.Spider):
    # 爬虫应用的名称,经过此名称启动爬虫命令
    name = "xiaohuar"
    # 容许的域名
    allowed_domains = ["xiaohuar.com"]

    start_urls = [
        "http://www.xiaohuar.com/list-1-1.html",
    ]
    # custom_settings = {
    #     'ITEM_PIPELINES':{
    #         'spider1.pipelines.JsonPipeline': 100
    #     }
    # }
    has_request_set = {}

    def parse(self, response):
        # 分析页面
        # 找到页面中符合规则的内容(校花图片),保存
        # 找到全部的a标签,再访问其余a标签,一层一层的搞下去

        hxs = HtmlXPathSelector(response)

        items = hxs.select('//div[@class="item_list infinite_scroll"]/div')
        for item in items:
            src = item.select('.//div[@class="img"]/a/img/@src').extract_first()
            name = item.select('.//div[@class="img"]/span/text()').extract_first()
            school = item.select('.//div[@class="img"]/div[@class="btns"]/a/text()').extract_first()
            url = "http://www.xiaohuar.com%s" % src
            from ..items import XiaoHuarItem
            obj = XiaoHuarItem(name=name, school=school, url=url)
            yield obj

        urls = hxs.select('//a[re:test(@href, "http://www.xiaohuar.com/list-1-\d+.html")]/@href')
        for url in urls:
            key = self.md5(url)
            if key in self.has_request_set:
                pass
            else:
                self.has_request_set[key] = url
                req = Request(url=url,method='GET',callback=self.parse)
                yield req

    @staticmethod
    def md5(val):
        import hashlib
        ha = hashlib.md5()
        ha.update(bytes(val, encoding='utf-8'))
        key = ha.hexdigest()
        return key
spiders/xiahuar.py
import scrapy


class XiaoHuarItem(scrapy.Item):
    name = scrapy.Field()
    school = scrapy.Field()
    url = scrapy.Field()
items
import json
import os
import requests


class JsonPipeline(object):
    def __init__(self):
        self.file = open('xiaohua.txt', 'w')

    def process_item(self, item, spider):
        v = json.dumps(dict(item), ensure_ascii=False)
        self.file.write(v)
        self.file.write('\n')
        self.file.flush()
        return item


class FilePipeline(object):
    def __init__(self):
        if not os.path.exists('imgs'):
            os.makedirs('imgs')

    def process_item(self, item, spider):
        response = requests.get(item['url'], stream=True)
        file_name = '%s_%s.jpg' % (item['name'], item['school'])
        with open(os.path.join('imgs', file_name), mode='wb') as f:
            f.write(response.content)
        return item
pipelines
ITEM_PIPELINES = {
   'spider1.pipelines.JsonPipeline': 100,
   'spider1.pipelines.FilePipeline': 300,
}
# 每行后面的整型值,肯定了他们运行的顺序,item按数字从低到高的顺序,经过pipeline,一般将这些数字定义在0-1000范围内。
settings

对于pipeline能够作更多,以下:

from scrapy.exceptions import DropItem

class CustomPipeline(object):
    def __init__(self,v):
        self.value = v

    def process_item(self, item, spider):
        # 操做并进行持久化

        # return表示会被后续的pipeline继续处理
        return item

        # 表示将item丢弃,不会被后续pipeline处理
        # raise DropItem()


    @classmethod
    def from_crawler(cls, crawler):
        """
        初始化时候,用于建立pipeline对象
        :param crawler: 
        :return: 
        """
        val = crawler.settings.getint('MMMM')
        return cls(val)

    def open_spider(self,spider):
        """
        爬虫开始执行时,调用
        :param spider: 
        :return: 
        """
        print('000000')

    def close_spider(self,spider):
        """
        爬虫关闭时,被调用
        :param spider: 
        :return: 
        """
        print('111111')
自定义pipeline

 

6.中间件

 

class SpiderMiddleware(object):

    def process_spider_input(self,response, spider):
        """
        下载完成,执行,而后交给parse处理
        :param response: 
        :param spider: 
        :return: 
        """
        pass

    def process_spider_output(self,response, result, spider):
        """
        spider处理完成,返回时调用
        :param response:
        :param result:
        :param spider:
        :return: 必须返回包含 Request 或 Item 对象的可迭代对象(iterable)
        """
        return result

    def process_spider_exception(self,response, exception, spider):
        """
        异常调用
        :param response:
        :param exception:
        :param spider:
        :return: None,继续交给后续中间件处理异常;含 Response 或 Item 的可迭代对象(iterable),交给调度器或pipeline
        """
        return None


    def process_start_requests(self,start_requests, spider):
        """
        爬虫启动时调用
        :param start_requests:
        :param spider:
        :return: 包含 Request 对象的可迭代对象
        """
        return start_requests
爬虫中间件
class DownMiddleware1(object):
    def process_request(self, request, spider):
        """
        请求须要被下载时,通过全部下载器中间件的process_request调用
        :param request: 
        :param spider: 
        :return:  
            None,继续后续中间件去下载;
            Response对象,中止process_request的执行,开始执行process_response
            Request对象,中止中间件的执行,将Request从新调度器
            raise IgnoreRequest异常,中止process_request的执行,开始执行process_exception
        """
        pass



    def process_response(self, request, response, spider):
        """
        spider处理完成,返回时调用
        :param response:
        :param result:
        :param spider:
        :return: 
            Response 对象:转交给其余中间件process_response
            Request 对象:中止中间件,request会被从新调度下载
            raise IgnoreRequest 异常:调用Request.errback
        """
        print('response1')
        return response

    def process_exception(self, request, exception, spider):
        """
        当下载处理器(download handler)或 process_request() (下载中间件)抛出异常
        :param response:
        :param exception:
        :param spider:
        :return: 
            None:继续交给后续中间件处理异常;
            Response对象:中止后续process_exception方法
            Request对象:中止中间件,request将会被从新调用下载
        """
        return None
下载器中间件

7. 自定制命令

  • 在spiders同级建立任意目录,如:commands
  • 在其中建立 crawlall.py 文件 (此处文件名就是自定义的命令)
    •  from scrapy.commands import ScrapyCommand
          from scrapy.utils.project import get_project_settings
      
      
          class Command(ScrapyCommand):
      
              requires_project = True
      
              def syntax(self):
                  return '[options]'
      
              def short_desc(self):
                  return 'Runs all of the spiders'
      
              def run(self, args, opts):
                  spider_list = self.crawler_process.spiders.list()
                  for name in spider_list:
                      self.crawler_process.crawl(name, **opts.__dict__)
                  self.crawler_process.start()
      crawlall.py

       

  • 在settings.py 中添加配置 COMMANDS_MODULE = '项目名称.目录名称'
  • 在项目目录执行命令:scrapy crawlall 
import sys
from scrapy.cmdline import execute

if __name__ == '__main__':
    execute(["scrapy","github","--nolog"])
单个爬虫

 

 

 

8. 自定义扩展

自定义扩展时,利用信号在指定位置注册制定操做

from scrapy import signals


class MyExtension(object):
    def __init__(self, value):
        self.value = value

    @classmethod
    def from_crawler(cls, crawler):
        val = crawler.settings.getint('MMMM')
        ext = cls(val)

        crawler.signals.connect(ext.spider_opened, signal=signals.spider_opened)
        crawler.signals.connect(ext.spider_closed, signal=signals.spider_closed)

        return ext

    def spider_opened(self, spider):
        print('open')

    def spider_closed(self, spider):
        print('close')
View Code

 

9. 避免重复访问

scrapy默认使用 scrapy.dupefilter.RFPDupeFilter 进行去重,相关配置有:

1
2
3
DUPEFILTER_CLASS  =  'scrapy.dupefilter.RFPDupeFilter'
DUPEFILTER_DEBUG  =  False
JOBDIR  =  "保存范文记录的日志路径,如:/root/"   # 最终路径为 /root/requests.seen
class RepeatUrl:
    def __init__(self):
        self.visited_url = set()

    @classmethod
    def from_settings(cls, settings):
        """
        初始化时,调用
        :param settings: 
        :return: 
        """
        return cls()

    def request_seen(self, request):
        """
        检测当前请求是否已经被访问过
        :param request: 
        :return: True表示已经访问过;False表示未访问过
        """
        if request.url in self.visited_url:
            return True
        self.visited_url.add(request.url)
        return False

    def open(self):
        """
        开始爬去请求时,调用
        :return: 
        """
        print('open replication')

    def close(self, reason):
        """
        结束爬虫爬取时,调用
        :param reason: 
        :return: 
        """
        print('close replication')

    def log(self, request, spider):
        """
        记录日志
        :param request: 
        :param spider: 
        :return: 
        """
        print('repeat', request.url)
自定义URL去重操做

 

 

10.其余

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

# Scrapy settings for step8_king project
#
# For simplicity, this file contains only settings considered important or
# commonly used. You can find more settings consulting the documentation:
#
#     http://doc.scrapy.org/en/latest/topics/settings.html
#     http://scrapy.readthedocs.org/en/latest/topics/downloader-middleware.html
#     http://scrapy.readthedocs.org/en/latest/topics/spider-middleware.html

# 1. 爬虫名称
BOT_NAME = 'step8_king'

# 2. 爬虫应用路径
SPIDER_MODULES = ['step8_king.spiders']
NEWSPIDER_MODULE = 'step8_king.spiders'

# Crawl responsibly by identifying yourself (and your website) on the user-agent
# 3. 客户端 user-agent请求头
# USER_AGENT = 'step8_king (+http://www.yourdomain.com)'

# Obey robots.txt rules
# 4. 禁止爬虫配置
# ROBOTSTXT_OBEY = False

# Configure maximum concurrent requests performed by Scrapy (default: 16)
# 5. 并发请求数
# CONCURRENT_REQUESTS = 4

# Configure a delay for requests for the same website (default: 0)
# See http://scrapy.readthedocs.org/en/latest/topics/settings.html#download-delay
# See also autothrottle settings and docs
# 6. 延迟下载秒数
# DOWNLOAD_DELAY = 2


# The download delay setting will honor only one of:
# 7. 单域名访问并发数,而且延迟下次秒数也应用在每一个域名
# CONCURRENT_REQUESTS_PER_DOMAIN = 2
# 单IP访问并发数,若是有值则忽略:CONCURRENT_REQUESTS_PER_DOMAIN,而且延迟下次秒数也应用在每一个IP
# CONCURRENT_REQUESTS_PER_IP = 3

# Disable cookies (enabled by default)
# 8. 是否支持cookie,cookiejar进行操做cookie
# COOKIES_ENABLED = True
# COOKIES_DEBUG = True

# Disable Telnet Console (enabled by default)
# 9. Telnet用于查看当前爬虫的信息,操做爬虫等...
#    使用telnet ip port ,而后经过命令操做
# TELNETCONSOLE_ENABLED = True
# TELNETCONSOLE_HOST = '127.0.0.1'
# TELNETCONSOLE_PORT = [6023,]


# 10. 默认请求头
# Override the default request headers:
# DEFAULT_REQUEST_HEADERS = {
#     'Accept': 'text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,*/*;q=0.8',
#     'Accept-Language': 'en',
# }


# Configure item pipelines
# See http://scrapy.readthedocs.org/en/latest/topics/item-pipeline.html
# 11. 定义pipeline处理请求
# ITEM_PIPELINES = {
#    'step8_king.pipelines.JsonPipeline': 700,
#    'step8_king.pipelines.FilePipeline': 500,
# }



# 12. 自定义扩展,基于信号进行调用
# Enable or disable extensions
# See http://scrapy.readthedocs.org/en/latest/topics/extensions.html
# EXTENSIONS = {
#     # 'step8_king.extensions.MyExtension': 500,
# }


# 13. 爬虫容许的最大深度,能够经过meta查看当前深度;0表示无深度
# DEPTH_LIMIT = 3

# 14. 爬取时,0表示深度优先Lifo(默认);1表示广度优先FiFo

# 后进先出,深度优先
# DEPTH_PRIORITY = 0
# SCHEDULER_DISK_QUEUE = 'scrapy.squeue.PickleLifoDiskQueue'
# SCHEDULER_MEMORY_QUEUE = 'scrapy.squeue.LifoMemoryQueue'
# 先进先出,广度优先

# DEPTH_PRIORITY = 1
# SCHEDULER_DISK_QUEUE = 'scrapy.squeue.PickleFifoDiskQueue'
# SCHEDULER_MEMORY_QUEUE = 'scrapy.squeue.FifoMemoryQueue'

# 15. 调度器队列
# SCHEDULER = 'scrapy.core.scheduler.Scheduler'
# from scrapy.core.scheduler import Scheduler


# 16. 访问URL去重
# DUPEFILTER_CLASS = 'step8_king.duplication.RepeatUrl'


# Enable and configure the AutoThrottle extension (disabled by default)
# See http://doc.scrapy.org/en/latest/topics/autothrottle.html

"""
17. 自动限速算法
    from scrapy.contrib.throttle import AutoThrottle
    自动限速设置
    1. 获取最小延迟 DOWNLOAD_DELAY
    2. 获取最大延迟 AUTOTHROTTLE_MAX_DELAY
    3. 设置初始下载延迟 AUTOTHROTTLE_START_DELAY
    4. 当请求下载完成后,获取其"链接"时间 latency,即:请求链接到接受到响应头之间的时间
    5. 用于计算的... AUTOTHROTTLE_TARGET_CONCURRENCY
    target_delay = latency / self.target_concurrency
    new_delay = (slot.delay + target_delay) / 2.0 # 表示上一次的延迟时间
    new_delay = max(target_delay, new_delay)
    new_delay = min(max(self.mindelay, new_delay), self.maxdelay)
    slot.delay = new_delay
"""

# 开始自动限速
# AUTOTHROTTLE_ENABLED = True
# The initial download delay
# 初始下载延迟
# AUTOTHROTTLE_START_DELAY = 5
# The maximum download delay to be set in case of high latencies
# 最大下载延迟
# AUTOTHROTTLE_MAX_DELAY = 10
# The average number of requests Scrapy should be sending in parallel to each remote server
# 平均每秒并发数
# AUTOTHROTTLE_TARGET_CONCURRENCY = 1.0

# Enable showing throttling stats for every response received:
# 是否显示
# AUTOTHROTTLE_DEBUG = True

# Enable and configure HTTP caching (disabled by default)
# See http://scrapy.readthedocs.org/en/latest/topics/downloader-middleware.html#httpcache-middleware-settings


"""
18. 启用缓存
    目的用于将已经发送的请求或相应缓存下来,以便之后使用
    
    from scrapy.downloadermiddlewares.httpcache import HttpCacheMiddleware
    from scrapy.extensions.httpcache import DummyPolicy
    from scrapy.extensions.httpcache import FilesystemCacheStorage
"""
# 是否启用缓存策略
# HTTPCACHE_ENABLED = True

# 缓存策略:全部请求均缓存,下次在请求直接访问原来的缓存便可
# HTTPCACHE_POLICY = "scrapy.extensions.httpcache.DummyPolicy"
# 缓存策略:根据Http响应头:Cache-Control、Last-Modified 等进行缓存的策略
# HTTPCACHE_POLICY = "scrapy.extensions.httpcache.RFC2616Policy"

# 缓存超时时间
# HTTPCACHE_EXPIRATION_SECS = 0

# 缓存保存路径
# HTTPCACHE_DIR = 'httpcache'

# 缓存忽略的Http状态码
# HTTPCACHE_IGNORE_HTTP_CODES = []

# 缓存存储的插件
# HTTPCACHE_STORAGE = 'scrapy.extensions.httpcache.FilesystemCacheStorage'


"""
19. 代理,须要在环境变量中设置
    from scrapy.contrib.downloadermiddleware.httpproxy import HttpProxyMiddleware
    
    方式一:使用默认
        os.environ
        {
            http_proxy:http://root:woshiniba@192.168.11.11:9999/
            https_proxy:http://192.168.11.11:9999/
        }
    方式二:使用自定义下载中间件
    
    def to_bytes(text, encoding=None, errors='strict'):
        if isinstance(text, bytes):
            return text
        if not isinstance(text, six.string_types):
            raise TypeError('to_bytes must receive a unicode, str or bytes '
                            'object, got %s' % type(text).__name__)
        if encoding is None:
            encoding = 'utf-8'
        return text.encode(encoding, errors)
        
    class ProxyMiddleware(object):
        def process_request(self, request, spider):
            PROXIES = [
                {'ip_port': '111.11.228.75:80', 'user_pass': ''},
                {'ip_port': '120.198.243.22:80', 'user_pass': ''},
                {'ip_port': '111.8.60.9:8123', 'user_pass': ''},
                {'ip_port': '101.71.27.120:80', 'user_pass': ''},
                {'ip_port': '122.96.59.104:80', 'user_pass': ''},
                {'ip_port': '122.224.249.122:8088', 'user_pass': ''},
            ]
            proxy = random.choice(PROXIES)
            if proxy['user_pass'] is not None:
                request.meta['proxy'] = to_bytes("http://%s" % proxy['ip_port'])
                encoded_user_pass = base64.encodestring(to_bytes(proxy['user_pass']))
                request.headers['Proxy-Authorization'] = to_bytes('Basic ' + encoded_user_pass)
                print "**************ProxyMiddleware have pass************" + proxy['ip_port']
            else:
                print "**************ProxyMiddleware no pass************" + proxy['ip_port']
                request.meta['proxy'] = to_bytes("http://%s" % proxy['ip_port'])
    
    DOWNLOADER_MIDDLEWARES = {
       'step8_king.middlewares.ProxyMiddleware': 500,
    }
    
"""

"""
20. Https访问
    Https访问时有两种状况:
    1. 要爬取网站使用的可信任证书(默认支持)
        DOWNLOADER_HTTPCLIENTFACTORY = "scrapy.core.downloader.webclient.ScrapyHTTPClientFactory"
        DOWNLOADER_CLIENTCONTEXTFACTORY = "scrapy.core.downloader.contextfactory.ScrapyClientContextFactory"
        
    2. 要爬取网站使用的自定义证书
        DOWNLOADER_HTTPCLIENTFACTORY = "scrapy.core.downloader.webclient.ScrapyHTTPClientFactory"
        DOWNLOADER_CLIENTCONTEXTFACTORY = "step8_king.https.MySSLFactory"
        
        # https.py
        from scrapy.core.downloader.contextfactory import ScrapyClientContextFactory
        from twisted.internet.ssl import (optionsForClientTLS, CertificateOptions, PrivateCertificate)
        
        class MySSLFactory(ScrapyClientContextFactory):
            def getCertificateOptions(self):
                from OpenSSL import crypto
                v1 = crypto.load_privatekey(crypto.FILETYPE_PEM, open('/Users/wupeiqi/client.key.unsecure', mode='r').read())
                v2 = crypto.load_certificate(crypto.FILETYPE_PEM, open('/Users/wupeiqi/client.pem', mode='r').read())
                return CertificateOptions(
                    privateKey=v1,  # pKey对象
                    certificate=v2,  # X509对象
                    verify=False,
                    method=getattr(self, 'method', getattr(self, '_ssl_method', None))
                )
    其余:
        相关类
            scrapy.core.downloader.handlers.http.HttpDownloadHandler
            scrapy.core.downloader.webclient.ScrapyHTTPClientFactory
            scrapy.core.downloader.contextfactory.ScrapyClientContextFactory
        相关配置
            DOWNLOADER_HTTPCLIENTFACTORY
            DOWNLOADER_CLIENTCONTEXTFACTORY

"""



"""
21. 爬虫中间件
    class SpiderMiddleware(object):

        def process_spider_input(self,response, spider):
            '''
            下载完成,执行,而后交给parse处理
            :param response: 
            :param spider: 
            :return: 
            '''
            pass
    
        def process_spider_output(self,response, result, spider):
            '''
            spider处理完成,返回时调用
            :param response:
            :param result:
            :param spider:
            :return: 必须返回包含 Request 或 Item 对象的可迭代对象(iterable)
            '''
            return result
    
        def process_spider_exception(self,response, exception, spider):
            '''
            异常调用
            :param response:
            :param exception:
            :param spider:
            :return: None,继续交给后续中间件处理异常;含 Response 或 Item 的可迭代对象(iterable),交给调度器或pipeline
            '''
            return None
    
    
        def process_start_requests(self,start_requests, spider):
            '''
            爬虫启动时调用
            :param start_requests:
            :param spider:
            :return: 包含 Request 对象的可迭代对象
            '''
            return start_requests
    
    内置爬虫中间件:
        'scrapy.contrib.spidermiddleware.httperror.HttpErrorMiddleware': 50,
        'scrapy.contrib.spidermiddleware.offsite.OffsiteMiddleware': 500,
        'scrapy.contrib.spidermiddleware.referer.RefererMiddleware': 700,
        'scrapy.contrib.spidermiddleware.urllength.UrlLengthMiddleware': 800,
        'scrapy.contrib.spidermiddleware.depth.DepthMiddleware': 900,

"""
# from scrapy.contrib.spidermiddleware.referer import RefererMiddleware
# Enable or disable spider middlewares
# See http://scrapy.readthedocs.org/en/latest/topics/spider-middleware.html
SPIDER_MIDDLEWARES = {
   # 'step8_king.middlewares.SpiderMiddleware': 543,
}


"""
22. 下载中间件
    class DownMiddleware1(object):
        def process_request(self, request, spider):
            '''
            请求须要被下载时,通过全部下载器中间件的process_request调用
            :param request:
            :param spider:
            :return:
                None,继续后续中间件去下载;
                Response对象,中止process_request的执行,开始执行process_response
                Request对象,中止中间件的执行,将Request从新调度器
                raise IgnoreRequest异常,中止process_request的执行,开始执行process_exception
            '''
            pass
    
    
    
        def process_response(self, request, response, spider):
            '''
            spider处理完成,返回时调用
            :param response:
            :param result:
            :param spider:
            :return:
                Response 对象:转交给其余中间件process_response
                Request 对象:中止中间件,request会被从新调度下载
                raise IgnoreRequest 异常:调用Request.errback
            '''
            print('response1')
            return response
    
        def process_exception(self, request, exception, spider):
            '''
            当下载处理器(download handler)或 process_request() (下载中间件)抛出异常
            :param response:
            :param exception:
            :param spider:
            :return:
                None:继续交给后续中间件处理异常;
                Response对象:中止后续process_exception方法
                Request对象:中止中间件,request将会被从新调用下载
            '''
            return None

    
    默认下载中间件
    {
        'scrapy.contrib.downloadermiddleware.robotstxt.RobotsTxtMiddleware': 100,
        'scrapy.contrib.downloadermiddleware.httpauth.HttpAuthMiddleware': 300,
        'scrapy.contrib.downloadermiddleware.downloadtimeout.DownloadTimeoutMiddleware': 350,
        'scrapy.contrib.downloadermiddleware.useragent.UserAgentMiddleware': 400,
        'scrapy.contrib.downloadermiddleware.retry.RetryMiddleware': 500,
        'scrapy.contrib.downloadermiddleware.defaultheaders.DefaultHeadersMiddleware': 550,
        'scrapy.contrib.downloadermiddleware.redirect.MetaRefreshMiddleware': 580,
        'scrapy.contrib.downloadermiddleware.httpcompression.HttpCompressionMiddleware': 590,
        'scrapy.contrib.downloadermiddleware.redirect.RedirectMiddleware': 600,
        'scrapy.contrib.downloadermiddleware.cookies.CookiesMiddleware': 700,
        'scrapy.contrib.downloadermiddleware.httpproxy.HttpProxyMiddleware': 750,
        'scrapy.contrib.downloadermiddleware.chunked.ChunkedTransferMiddleware': 830,
        'scrapy.contrib.downloadermiddleware.stats.DownloaderStats': 850,
        'scrapy.contrib.downloadermiddleware.httpcache.HttpCacheMiddleware': 900,
    }

"""
# from scrapy.contrib.downloadermiddleware.httpauth import HttpAuthMiddleware
# Enable or disable downloader middlewares
# See http://scrapy.readthedocs.org/en/latest/topics/downloader-middleware.html
# DOWNLOADER_MIDDLEWARES = {
#    'step8_king.middlewares.DownMiddleware1': 100,
#    'step8_king.middlewares.DownMiddleware2': 500,
# }

settings
sttings

 

11. 大文件下载

示例文件:猛击下载

12.TinyScrapy

from twisted.web.client import getPage
from twisted.internet import reactor
from twisted.internet import defer

url_list = ['http://www.bing.com', 'http://www.baidu.com', ]


def callback(arg):
    print('回来一个', arg)


defer_list = []
for url in url_list:
    ret = getPage(bytes(url, encoding='utf8'))
    ret.addCallback(callback)
    defer_list.append(ret)


def stop(arg):
    print('已经所有如今完毕', arg)
    reactor.stop()


d = defer.DeferredList(defer_list)
d.addBoth(stop)

reactor.run()
twisted示例一
#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-
from twisted.web.client import getPage
from twisted.internet import reactor
from twisted.internet import defer


@defer.inlineCallbacks
def task(url):
    ret = getPage(bytes(url, encoding='utf8'))
    ret.addCallback(callback)
    yield ret


def callback(arg):
    print('回来一个', arg)


url_list = ['http://www.bing.com', 'http://www.baidu.com', ]
defer_list = []
for url in url_list:
    ret = task(url)
    defer_list.append(ret)


def stop(arg):
    print('已经所有如今完毕', arg)
    reactor.stop()


d = defer.DeferredList(defer_list)
d.addBoth(stop)
reactor.run()
twisted示例二
#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-
from twisted.internet import defer
from twisted.web.client import getPage
from twisted.internet import reactor
import threading


def _next_request():
    _next_request_from_scheduler()


def _next_request_from_scheduler():
    ret = getPage(bytes('http://www.chouti.com', encoding='utf8'))
    ret.addCallback(callback)
    ret.addCallback(lambda _: reactor.callLater(0, _next_request))


_closewait = None

@defer.inlineCallbacks
def engine_start():
    global _closewait
    _closewait = defer.Deferred()
    yield _closewait


@defer.inlineCallbacks
def task(url):
    reactor.callLater(0, _next_request)
    yield engine_start()


counter = 0
def callback(arg):
    global counter
    counter +=1
    if counter == 10:
        _closewait.callback(None)
    print('one', len(arg))


def stop(arg):
    print('all done', arg)
    reactor.stop()


if __name__ == '__main__':
    url = 'http://www.cnblogs.com'

    defer_list = []
    deferObj = task(url)
    defer_list.append(deferObj)

    v = defer.DeferredList(defer_list)
    v.addBoth(stop)
    reactor.run()
twisted示例三
#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-
from twisted.web.client import getPage, defer
from twisted.internet import reactor
import queue


class Response(object):
    def __init__(self, body, request):
        self.body = body
        self.request = request
        self.url = request.url

    @property
    def text(self):
        return self.body.decode('utf-8')


class Request(object):
    def __init__(self, url, callback=None):
        self.url = url
        self.callback = callback


class Scheduler(object):
    def __init__(self, engine):
        self.q = queue.Queue()
        self.engine = engine

    def enqueue_request(self, request):
        self.q.put(request)

    def next_request(self):
        try:
            req = self.q.get(block=False)
        except Exception as e:
            req = None

        return req

    def size(self):
        return self.q.qsize()


class ExecutionEngine(object):
    def __init__(self):
        self._closewait = None
        self.running = True
        self.start_requests = None
        self.scheduler = Scheduler(self)

        self.inprogress = set()

    def check_empty(self, response):
        if not self.running:
            self._closewait.callback('......')

    def _next_request(self):
        while self.start_requests:
            try:
                request = next(self.start_requests)
            except StopIteration:
                self.start_requests = None
            else:
                self.scheduler.enqueue_request(request)

        while len(self.inprogress) < 5 and self.scheduler.size() > 0:  # 最大并发数为5

            request = self.scheduler.next_request()
            if not request:
                break

            self.inprogress.add(request)
            d = getPage(bytes(request.url, encoding='utf-8'))
            d.addBoth(self._handle_downloader_output, request)
            d.addBoth(lambda x, req: self.inprogress.remove(req), request)
            d.addBoth(lambda x: self._next_request())

        if len(self.inprogress) == 0 and self.scheduler.size() == 0:
            self._closewait.callback(None)

    def _handle_downloader_output(self, body, request):
        """
        获取内容,执行回调函数,而且把回调函数中的返回值获取,并添加到队列中
        :param response: 
        :param request: 
        :return: 
        """
        import types

        response = Response(body, request)
        func = request.callback or self.spider.parse
        gen = func(response)
        if isinstance(gen, types.GeneratorType):
            for req in gen:
                self.scheduler.enqueue_request(req)

    @defer.inlineCallbacks
    def start(self):
        self._closewait = defer.Deferred()
        yield self._closewait

    def open_spider(self, spider, start_requests):
        self.start_requests = start_requests
        self.spider = spider
        reactor.callLater(0, self._next_request)


class Crawler(object):
    def __init__(self, spidercls):
        self.spidercls = spidercls

        self.spider = None
        self.engine = None

    @defer.inlineCallbacks
    def crawl(self):
        self.engine = ExecutionEngine()
        self.spider = self.spidercls()
        start_requests = iter(self.spider.start_requests())
        start_requests = iter(start_requests)
        self.engine.open_spider(self.spider, start_requests)
        yield self.engine.start()


class CrawlerProcess(object):
    def __init__(self):
        self._active = set()
        self.crawlers = set()

    def crawl(self, spidercls, *args, **kwargs):
        crawler = Crawler(spidercls)

        self.crawlers.add(crawler)
        d = crawler.crawl(*args, **kwargs)
        self._active.add(d)
        return d

    def start(self):
        dl = defer.DeferredList(self._active)
        dl.addBoth(self._stop_reactor)
        reactor.run()

    def _stop_reactor(self, _=None):
        reactor.stop()


class Spider(object):
    def start_requests(self):
        for url in self.start_urls:
            yield Request(url)


class ChoutiSpider(Spider):
    name = "chouti"
    start_urls = [
        'http://dig.chouti.com/',
    ]

    def parse(self, response):
        print(response.text)


class CnblogsSpider(Spider):
    name = "cnblogs"
    start_urls = [
        'http://www.cnblogs.com/',
    ]

    def parse(self, response):
        print(response.text)


if __name__ == '__main__':

    spider_cls_list = [ChoutiSpider, CnblogsSpider]

    crawler_process = CrawlerProcess()
    for spider_cls in spider_cls_list:
        crawler_process.crawl(spider_cls)

    crawler_process.start()
模拟scrapy框架
#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-
import types
from twisted.internet import defer
from twisted.web.client import getPage
from twisted.internet import reactor



class Request(object):
    def __init__(self, url, callback):
        self.url = url
        self.callback = callback
        self.priority = 0


class HttpResponse(object):
    def __init__(self, content, request):
        self.content = content
        self.request = request


class ChouTiSpider(object):

    def start_requests(self):
        url_list = ['http://www.cnblogs.com/', 'http://www.bing.com']
        for url in url_list:
            yield Request(url=url, callback=self.parse)

    def parse(self, response):
        print(response.request.url)
        # yield Request(url="http://www.baidu.com", callback=self.parse)




from queue import Queue
Q = Queue()


class CallLaterOnce(object):
    def __init__(self, func, *a, **kw):
        self._func = func
        self._a = a
        self._kw = kw
        self._call = None

    def schedule(self, delay=0):
        if self._call is None:
            self._call = reactor.callLater(delay, self)

    def cancel(self):
        if self._call:
            self._call.cancel()

    def __call__(self):
        self._call = None
        return self._func(*self._a, **self._kw)


class Engine(object):
    def __init__(self):
        self.nextcall = None
        self.crawlling = []
        self.max = 5
        self._closewait = None

    def get_response(self,content, request):
        response = HttpResponse(content, request)
        gen = request.callback(response)
        if isinstance(gen, types.GeneratorType):
            for req in gen:
                req.priority = request.priority + 1
                Q.put(req)


    def rm_crawlling(self,response,d):
        self.crawlling.remove(d)

    def _next_request(self,spider):
        if Q.qsize() == 0 and len(self.crawlling) == 0:
            self._closewait.callback(None)

        if len(self.crawlling) >= 5:
            return
        while len(self.crawlling) < 5:
            try:
                req = Q.get(block=False)
            except Exception as e:
                req = None
            if not req:
                return
            d = getPage(req.url.encode('utf-8'))
            self.crawlling.append(d)
            d.addCallback(self.get_response, req)
            d.addCallback(self.rm_crawlling,d)
            d.addCallback(lambda _: self.nextcall.schedule())


    @defer.inlineCallbacks
    def crawl(self):
        spider = ChouTiSpider()
        start_requests = iter(spider.start_requests())
        flag = True
        while flag:
            try:
                req = next(start_requests)
                Q.put(req)
            except StopIteration as e:
                flag = False

        self.nextcall = CallLaterOnce(self._next_request,spider)
        self.nextcall.schedule()

        self._closewait = defer.Deferred()
        yield self._closewait

    @defer.inlineCallbacks
    def pp(self):
        yield self.crawl()

_active = set()
obj = Engine()
d = obj.crawl()
_active.add(d)

li = defer.DeferredList(_active)
li.addBoth(lambda _,*a,**kw: reactor.stop())

reactor.run()
参考版